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DCMS Sectors Financial Estimates 2021: Workforce, January 2021 to December 2021 – Technical and high quality assurance report

Income Statistics 2019 to 2020: Summary for Tables 3.12 to 3.15a

1. Overview of launch

The statistics launch ‘DCMS Sector Financial Estimates 2021: Workforce’ gives estimates of the variety of stuffed jobs and median hourly earnings within the DCMS Sectors (excluding Tourism) for the 12-month interval between January 2021 and December 2021. There’s important overlap between DCMS sectors subsequently customers needs to be conscious that employment within the DCMS complete is decrease than the sum of the person sectors. These estimates are derived from a single information supply (Annual Inhabitants Survey, or APS) and include breakdowns together with, however not restricted to, employment kind (i.e. employed or self-employed), area of labor, nationality, gender and ethnicity.

Employment and earnings estimates based mostly on APS information are a median over the 12-month interval from January 2021 to December  2021. Customers needs to be conscious the APS just isn’t the popular supply for earnings estimates on the mixture stage, with estimates based mostly on the ASHE (Annual Survey for Hours and Earnings) offering a extra strong measure. Nevertheless, the APS does allow us to offer demographic breakdowns of earnings that the ASHE information doesn’t. Extra element on the APS is obtainable in part 3.

Estimates for the Tourism sector usually are not obtainable on this launch. It’s because the estimates for 2021 haven’t but been revealed by ONS as a part of the Tourism Satellite tv for pc Account sequence.

The Workplace for Nationwide Statistics (ONS) is the supplier of the underlying information used for the evaluation introduced inside this launch. As such, the identical information sources are used for DCMS estimates as for nationwide estimates, enabling comparisons to be made on a constant foundation.

1.1 Code of Follow for Statistics

DCMS Sector Employment Estimates sequence is a Nationwide Statistic and has been produced to the requirements set out within the Code of Follow for Statistics. In June 2019, a set of DCMS Sector Financial Estimates, together with employment estimates, have been badged as Nationwide Statistics. This affirms that these statistics have met the necessities of the Code of Follow for Statistics. The earnings estimates are a more moderen sequence of Official Statistics which are produced to the requirements of the Code of Follow however haven’t but been badged.

This adopted a report by the Workplace for Statistics Regulation in December 2018, which acknowledged that the sequence might be designated as Nationwide Statistics topic to assembly sure necessities. Because the report, we have now striven to enhance our publications by offering summaries of different notable sources of knowledge, extra element on the character and extent of the overlap between the sectors, and additional data on the standard and limitations of the info. We’ll proceed to enhance the sequence sooner or later, in step with the suggestions of the report. We encourage our customers to have interaction with us in order that we will enhance our statistics and establish gaps within the statistics that we produce.

1.2 Customers

The customers of those statistics fall into 5 broad classes:

Ministers and different political figures
Coverage and different professionals in DCMS and different Authorities departments
Industries and their consultant our bodies
Charitable organisations

The first use of those statistics is to watch the efficiency of the industries within the DCMS sectors, serving to to grasp how present and future coverage interventions will be best.

2. Sector definitions

With a view to measure the dimensions of the economic system you will need to be capable to outline it. DCMS makes use of a spread of definitions based mostly on inner or UK agreed definitions. Definitions are predominantly based mostly on the Customary Industrial Classification 2007 (SIC) codes. This implies nationally constant sources of knowledge can be utilized and allows worldwide comparisons.

2.1 Overview of DCMS Sectors

Important sector definitions

The sectors for which DCMS has accountability are:

Civil Society
Artistic Industries
Cultural Sector
Digital Sector

The Tourism sector just isn’t included on this launch as estimates for the ONS Tourism Satellite tv for pc Account, that are used to publish our Tourism employment and earnings estimates, are nonetheless being developed for 2021 and have but to be launched.

We’ve got up to date the methodology for estimating employment in Civil Society. Subsequently, warning needs to be utilized when evaluating with beforehand revealed information. We’ve got not too long ago revealed a coherent again sequence with the freshest methodology within the ‘DCMS Sector Nationwide Financial Estimates: 2011 – 2020’ launch.

Every sector definition has been designed to be the absolute best measure of that sector, quite than being thought of as a part of a larger complete. This method has led to overlap between DCMS sectors, whereby an business (as outlined by 4-digit Customary Industrial Classification, or SIC, codes) might concurrently be a Cultural Sector SIC code and a Artistic Industries SIC code. Particularly, the Cultural Sector is outlined utilizing SIC codes which are almost all throughout the Artistic Industries, while the Telecoms Sector is totally throughout the Digital Sector.

Determine 1 under visually exhibits the overlap between DCMS Sectors by way of industries. Customers ought to word that this doesn’t give a sign of the magnitude of the worth of overlap.

The precise measurement of the overlap between sectors varies by measure. For the figures on this launch, the overlap between the sectors is as illustrated in Determine 2, under. Right here the quantity of 1 bar that’s vertically above one other bar signifies the dimensions of the overlap, for instance, the truth that the whole lot of the Telecoms bar above the digital bar, signifies that all the Telecoms sector is throughout the Digital sector.

Determine 1: Commonality of industries throughout the DCMS sectors.

Determine 2: Dimension of the overlap between DCMS Sectors, Employment, January 2021 to December 2021.

Different sector definitions

Further evaluation is introduced for the Audio-Visible sector and the Pc Video games sector. The definition of the Audio-Visible sector (see under) is meant to mirror the sectors coated by the EU Audio Visible Media Providers Directive.

59.11 – Movement image, video and tv programme manufacturing actions
59.12 – Movement image, video and tv programme post-production actions
59.13 – Movement image, video and tv programme distribution actions
59.2 – Sound recording and music publishing actions
60.1 – Radio broadcasting
60.2 – Tv programming and broadcasting actions
63.91 – Information company actions
63.99 – Different data service actions n.e.c.
77.22 – Renting of video tapes and disks
77.4 – Leasing of mental property and comparable merchandise, besides copyrighted works

The Pc Video games sector combines the 4-digit SIC code 58.21 (Publishing of Pc Video games) and 62.01/1 (Prepared-made interactive leisure and leisure software program improvement).

Numerous software program programming corporations in the entire SIC code 62.01 – ‘Pc programming actions’ can also contribute to the output of laptop video games, as a part of a spread of programming actions. Solely a subset of those (these in 62.01/1) are included in these laptop video games estimates, nevertheless they may all have been implicitly included within the ‘IT, software program and laptop providers’ Artistic Industries sub-sector in the primary estimates.

2.2 Particulars and limitations of sector definitions

This part appears to be like at sector definitions used on this launch in additional element, and gives an outline of limitations.

There are substantial limitations to the underlying classifications. Because the stability and make-up of the economic system adjustments, the SIC, finalised in 2007, is much less in a position to present the element for necessary parts of the UK economic system associated to DCMS Sectors. The SIC codes used to supply these estimates are a ‘finest match’, topic to the constraints described within the following part.

Artistic Industries

The Artistic Industries have been outlined within the Authorities’s 2001 Artistic Industries Mapping Doc as “these industries which have their origin in particular person creativity, talent and expertise and which have a possible for wealth and job creation via the era and exploitation of mental property”. Primarily based on this definition DCMS labored carefully with stakeholders to find out which occupations and industries needs to be thought of inventive.

The Artistic Industries have been decided on the idea of inventive depth:

Via session a listing of Artistic Occupations have been recognized[footnote 1].
The proportion of inventive jobs in every business was calculated (the inventive depth)
Industries with inventive depth above a specified threshold are thought of Artistic Industries

The definition is a UK definition based mostly on internationally constant industrial classifications. The SIC codes used to seize the Artistic Industries sector and sub-sectors are proven within the tables revealed alongside this steering word. See the Artistic Industries Financial Estimates methodology word for a extra detailed clarification of how the definition has been derived.

Following the 2020 UK overview of the Customary Occupational Classification (SOC) which added, eliminated or merged occupation codes, DCMS has up to date the record of inventive SOC codes in step with the adjustments throughout the classifications. This up to date record of Artistic Occupations, and corresponding experimental estimates of employment and earnings, are revealed alongside this launch. DCMS is in search of suggestions on these codes and the way strongly they signify the set of occupations which are inventive. Please can any suggestions be supplied to proof@dcms.gov.uk by Thursday 4th August. As soon as the feedback-seeking train has been accomplished the inventive occupations SOC codes will probably be confirmed, and the associated methodology paperwork will probably be up to date.

Cultural Sector

There are important limitations to the DCMS measurement of the cultural sector arising from the shortage of detailed disaggregation attainable utilizing the usual industrial classifications. There are various circumstances the place tradition types a small a part of an business classification and subsequently can’t be individually recognized and assigned as tradition utilizing normal information sources. DCMS consulted on the definition of Tradition and revealed a response in April 2017.

It’s recognised that, because of the limitations related to SIC codes, the SIC code utilized in previous publications as a proxy for the Heritage sector (91.03 – Operation of historic websites and constructing and comparable customer sights) is prone to be an underestimate of this sector’s worth. We’ve got modified the identify of the Heritage sector to ‘Operation for historic websites and comparable customer sights’ to mirror this.

Digital Sector

The definition of the Digital sector utilized by DCMS is predicated on the OECD definition of the ‘data society’. This can be a mixture of the OECD definition for the “ICT sector” in addition to together with the definition of the “content material and media sector”. An outline of the SIC codes included in every of those sectors is obtainable within the OECD Information to Measuring the Info Society 2011 (see Field 7.A1.2 on web page 159 and Field 7.A1.3 on web page 164).

The definition used for the Digital Sector doesn’t permit consideration of the worth added of “digital” to the broader economic system e.g. in well being care or building. DCMS coverage accountability is for digital throughout the economic system and subsequently it is a important weak point within the present method.


For the aim of this publication the statistical definition of sport has been used. This incorporates solely these 4-digit Customary Industrial Classification (SIC) codes that are predominantly sport (see the definitions desk revealed alongside the methodology word).

DCMS additionally publishes estimates of sport based mostly on the EU agreed Vilnius definition. The Vilnius definition is a extra complete measure of sport which considers the contribution of sport throughout a spread of industries, for instance sport promoting, and sport associated building. The methodology for the DCMS Sport Satellite tv for pc Account is at the moment being reviewed and subsequently has not been utilized in these estimates.

Civil Society

In DCMS APS based mostly estimates, respondents are thought of to be a part of the Civil Society sector if the organisation they work for just isn’t “a personal agency or enterprise, a restricted firm”, and is a “charity, voluntary organisation or belief”. As that is solely collected for respondents’ first jobs, estimates within the variety of stuffed jobs in Civil Society are based mostly on essential jobs solely, and don’t embrace second jobs (not like estimates for all different sectors). This estimate is subsequently an under-estimate on two counts: it doesn’t embrace second jobs, and it doesn’t embrace volunteers, social enterprises and mutuals.

3. Methodology

3.1 Knowledge Sources

On this launch, each employment and earnings statistics are calculated utilizing the Workplace for Nationwide Statistics (ONS) Annual Inhabitants survey (APS).

Annual Inhabitants Survey

The APS is a family survey that mixes 4 quarters of the Labour Drive Survey with a further pattern enhance. Info collected consists of the small print of employment (e.g. location, business, seniority, occupation, earnings), circumstances (e.g. housing tenure, well being) and demography (e.g. nationality, age, ethnicity).  Responses are weighted to inhabitants totals.

3.2 Technique

Nearly all of the info processing is completed by ONS, with DCMS receiving cleaned and weighted respondent stage information. We then course of the info to offer estimates for employment and earnings.

Employment estimates

To supply our employment estimates we take away any respondents who usually are not in work from the dataset for evaluation. We outline ‘in work’ as these with a primary job who’re an worker or self-employed and people who have a second job who’re workers, self-employed or have in any other case not acknowledged.

As we estimate employment because the variety of stuffed jobs, we restructure the info to be on a per job foundation, quite than a respondent foundation. We then choose entries which are related for a selected measure (e.g. all entries with an SIC code of 85.52 for complete employment in Cultural Schooling) and mixture over the related inhabitants weights to generate an estimate of the whole stuffed jobs.

Earnings estimates

The ONS definition of earnings is the cost obtained by workers in return for employment. Most analyses of earnings take into account solely gross earnings, which is earnings earlier than any deductions are made for taxes (together with Nationwide Insurance coverage contribution), pensions contributions, scholar mortgage deductions, and earlier than cost of advantages. Additional data is obtainable from the ONS publication: A information to sources of knowledge on earnings and earnings.

The APS gives a self-reported worth of gross hourly pay for a respondent’s essential (first) job. To supply our earnings estimates we filter for all workers who’ve a essential job, and choose entries which are related for a selected measure (e.g. all entries with a Cultural Sector SIC code). In distinction to the employment estimates, we then mixture over the respective earnings weights earlier than producing a median (center, or fiftieth percentile) worth for every grouping (e.g. median hourly pay within the Cultural Sector).

Customers needs to be conscious, estimates based mostly on the APS usually are not used as DCMS’s headline measure of earnings. DCMS additionally publishes estimates based mostly on the Annual Survey for Hours and Earnings (ASHE), and these are extra strong on the aggregated stage. It’s because estimates derived from the APS are based mostly on self reported values and sometimes have low pattern sizes attributable to respondents not at all times being requested the earnings query. Nevertheless, DCMS has began publishing experimental earnings estimates utilizing the APS, along with these utilizing ASHE, as a result of it provides entry to extra detailed demographic data.

Disclosure management

As a part of the manufacturing course of we additionally apply disclosure management measures to forestall the identification of any respondents. We suppress values the place the variety of respondents for a cell is under a set threshold. The place acceptable, we additionally apply secondary suppression to forestall disclosure by way of differencing.

3.3 Modifications on this launch

Sometimes, DCMS sector estimates based mostly on the APS embrace quite a lot of demographic breakdowns, together with age, intercourse, area of labor, nationality, ethnicity, incapacity, highest qualification and occupation grouping. Nevertheless, for this launch the usual APS employment and earnings information won’t include data on occupation grouping. That is because of the Customary Occupational Classifications (SOC) used to outline Artistic Occupations and Digital Occupations having not too long ago been refreshed, in a course of led by the ONS.

A definition of the Artistic occupations has been developed utilizing these new SOC codes (known as “SOC2020”). This data is revealed in separate supplementary tables alongside this launch, together with: SOC2020 Artistic occupations definitions, SOC2020 outlined Artistic occupations employment estimates and SOC2020 outlined Artistic occupations earnings estimates. We might welcome any suggestions that customers have on these definitions.

4. High quality assurance processes

This doc summarises the standard assurance processes utilized throughout the manufacturing of those statistics by our information suppliers, the Workplace for Nationwide Statistics (ONS), in addition to these utilized by DCMS.

High quality assurance processes at ONS

High quality assurance at ONS takes place at a lot of phases. The assorted phases and the processes in place to make sure high quality for the info sources are outlined under. It’s price noting that data introduced right here on information sources are taken from the Annual Inhabitants Survey (QMI). This work needs to be credited to colleagues on the ONS.

ONS Annual Inhabitants Survey

The aim of the APS is to offer data on necessary social and socio-economic variables at native ranges. The APS just isn’t a stand-alone survey, however makes use of information from the Labour Drive Survey (LFS) and an area pattern enhance.

Pattern design

The APS survey 12 months is split into quarters of 13 weeks. From January 2006, it has been carried out on the idea of calendar quarters: January to March (Quarter 1), April to June (Quarter 2), July to September (Quarter 3) and October to December (Quarter 4). The APS design just isn’t stratified.

The APS information set is created by taking waves 1 and 5 from 4 successive quarters, with rolling-year information from the English, Welsh and Scottish Native Labour Drive Survey, to acquire an yearly consultant pattern of round 80,000 households. Over the interval of the 4 quarters, waves 1 and 5 won’t ever include the identical households to keep away from the inclusion of responses from any family greater than as soon as within the dataset.

Sampling body

The sampling body for the survey in Nice Britain is the Royal Mail Postcode Deal with File (PAF) and the Nationwide Well being Service (NHS) communal lodging record. Because of the very low inhabitants density within the far north of Scotland (north of the Caledonian Canal), phone directories are used as sampling frames. A scientific pattern is drawn every quarter from these three sampling bases, and because the PAF is damaged down geographically, the systematic sampling ensures that the pattern is consultant at regional stage. In Northern Eire, the Ranking and Valuation Lists (which serve for the administration of land taxes) are used.

Knowledge assortment

Interviews in all waves are carried out both on a face-to-face foundation with the assistance of laptops, generally known as Pc Assisted Private Interviews (CAPI) or on the phone, generally known as Pc Assisted Phone Interviews (CATI). Info is collected utilizing a software program bundle known as Blaise.

Validation and high quality assurance

Accuracy is the diploma of closeness between an estimate and the true worth. As each surveys are pattern surveys, they supply estimates of inhabitants traits quite than actual measures. At ONS, confidence intervals are used to current the sampling variability of the survey. For instance, with a 95% confidence interval, it’s anticipated that in 95% of survey samples, the ensuing confidence interval will include the true worth that may be obtained by surveying the entire inhabitants.
Comparability is the diploma to which information will be in contrast over time and area, coherence is the diploma to which information are derived from totally different sources or strategies however check with the identical matter and are comparable. Some sources present information that overlap with APS/LFS information on employment, unemployment and earnings. Extra data on these sources can be found right here.

Statistical disclosure management methodology can be utilized to the datasets earlier than launch. This ensures that data attributable to a person just isn’t disclosed.
On every quarterly LFS dataset, the variable frequencies are in contrast with the earlier interval. This identifies any important discontinuities at an early stage. All discontinuities judged important are investigated to find out the rationale for the discontinuity. Is it the product of questionnaire revision or processing error, derived variable revision or error or real-world change? This course of additionally ensures that the metadata related to every variable are right.
Particular essential derived variables are checked intimately by extracting the underlying variables and recalculating in one other software, then evaluating the outcomes with the values within the dataset. This ensures that this system used to calculate the derived variables is working appropriately.

High quality assurance processes at DCMS

Nearly all of high quality assurance of the info underpinning this DCMS Sectors Financial Estimates launch takes place at ONS, via the processes described above. Nevertheless, additional high quality assurance checks are carried out inside DCMS at varied phases.

Manufacturing of the report is usually carried out by one member of workers, while high quality assurance is accomplished by not less than one different, to make sure an impartial analysis of the work.

Knowledge necessities

For APS information, DCMS discusses its information necessities with ONS and these are formalised as a Knowledge Entry Settlement (DAA). The DAA covers which information are required, the aim of the info, and the circumstances beneath which ONS present the info. Discussions of necessities and goal with ONS enhance the understanding of the info at DCMS, serving to us to make sure we obtain the right information and use it appropriately.

Manufacturing and information evaluation

On the manufacturing stage, information are aggregated as much as produce details about DCMS sectors and sub-sectors earlier than inputting the info into the formal information tables prepared for evaluation. Disclosure management can be utilized as a part of this course of.

The statistical lead ensures a lot of high quality assurance checks are undertaken throughout this course of. The place related these checks sometimes embrace:

whether or not disaggregations sum to the general complete. E.g:

Do sub-sectors throughout the Artistic Industries sum to the Artistic Industries complete?
Do the person regional breakdowns sum as much as the whole for that sector?

“Sense checks” of the info. E.g.:

Are the estimates comparable from one 12 months to the following? How do the figures examine with ONS revealed totals?
any giant variations between the info and attainable causes to those.

Checking that the right SIC codes have been aggregated collectively to kind DCMS sector (and sub-sector) estimates. Are all SIC codes we require included? Are there any non-DCMS SIC codes which have been included by chance?
Checking it’s not attainable to derive disclosive information from the figures that will probably be revealed.
Ensuring the right information has been pasted to the ultimate tables for publication, are accessible, formatted appropriately, and have acceptable documentation.

Having checked the standard of the info, evaluation is then carried out to stipulate the important thing traits and patterns. That is then checked to make sure all statements, figures and charts are right.


Finalised figures are revealed as OpenDocument spreadsheets on GOV.UK, with abstract textual content on the webpage. These are produced by the workforce statistics lead who, beforehand, checks with the ONS on particulars of how you can interpret the statistics. Earlier than publishing, a top quality assurer checks the figures match between the tables and the GOV.UK web page abstract. The standard assurer additionally makes positive any statements made in regards to the figures (e.g. concerning traits) are right in keeping with the evaluation and checks spelling or grammar errors.

5. Exterior information sources

It’s recognised that there are at all times other ways to outline sectors, however their relevance will depend on what they’re wanted for. Authorities usually favours classification techniques that are

rigorously measured,
internationally comparable,
nationally constant, and
ideally relevant to particular coverage interventions.

These are the primary causes for DCMS setting up sector classifications from Customary Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Nevertheless, DCMS accepts that there are limitations with this method and various definitions will be helpful the place a policy-relevant grouping of companies crosses present Customary Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. DCMS is conscious of different estimates related to DCMS sectors. These estimates use varied strategies and information sources, and will be helpful for serving a number of functions, e.g. monitoring progress beneath particular coverage themes similar to group well being or the setting, or measuring actions subsumed throughout a spread of SIC’s.

The ONS use the quarterly Labour Drive Survey for his or her estimates of UK-wide employment charges. Our APS employment estimates of the variety of stuffed jobs within the DCMS sectors takes an analogous method. Nevertheless, because the APS makes use of two waves of the LFS, the datasets usually are not immediately comparable and the ONS revealed figures will differ barely from ours.

For employment statistics extra broadly, the primary various is the Enterprise Register and Employment Survey (BRES). This has the benefit of asking companies immediately about their workers and therefore is prone to seize the sector of workers extra precisely than a family survey. Nevertheless, it doesn’t include the vary of demographic breakdowns that the APS does, which allows us to construct a fuller image of employment in our sectors, utilizing a still-robust information supply, and doesn’t embrace the self-employed, which represent a considerable a part of the workforce for a lot of DCMS sectors.

For some elements of the DCMS Sectors, estimates have been tried to a fuller definition of the sector. Particularly, for the Heritage subsector DCMS solely appears to be like at financial exercise attributed to the “Operation of historic websites and sights” (SIC 91.03). Nevertheless, Historic England (working with the CEBR) have revealed their very own estimate of the variety of jobs supported by Heritage, utilizing a wider definition. UK Music have finished likewise, for the Music sector, once more utilizing a wider definition.

It’s recognised that there will probably be different sources of proof from business our bodies, for instance, which haven’t been included above. We encourage statistics producers inside DCMS sectors who haven’t been referenced to contact the financial estimates workforce at proof@dcms.gov.uk.

6. Additional data

For enquiries on this launch, please electronic mail proof@dcms.gov.uk.

For basic enquiries contact:

Division for Digital, Tradition, Media and Sport
100 Parliament Road London

Phone: 020 7211 6000

DCMS statisticians will be adopted on Twitter by way of @DCMSInsight.

This launch is a Nationwide Statistics publication and has been produced to the requirements set out within the Code of Follow for Statistics.

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