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Employment standing and employment rights: steering for HR professionals, authorized professionals and different teams

Income Statistics 2019 to 2020: Summary for Tables 3.12 to 3.15a

Part 1: Steering overview

Employment standing impacts everybody who works. Areas comparable to pay, depart and dealing situations can all depend upon employment standing.

Individuals with totally different employment statuses have totally different rights set out in legislation. The rights are designed to guard people. A lot of the rights are obligatory, and usually can’t be signed away.

Readability round people’ and employers’ (or engagers – an individual or enterprise who engages self-employed people for work) rights and duties at work helps empowerment for working individuals and certainty between competing companies.

There are 2 separate items of steering tailor-made for:

people to assist them perceive their employment standing in order that they know their rights, can have knowledgeable discussions with their employer about them, and may take steps to say them and have them enforced the place needed

employers or engagers to assist them perceive people’ employment standing in order that they adjust to the legislation, serving to guarantee people obtain the rights they’re entitled to, and to keep away from pointless disputes and related prices

This detailed steering goals to assist HR professionals, authorized professionals and different teams to advise employers, engagers and people concerning the legislation and the best way to adjust to it.

The aim of this steering is to carry extra readability to employment standing. Readability round people’ and employers’ employment rights and duties at work is a vital a part of a well-functioning and honest labour market.

Utilizing this steering

The territorial scope of this steering is Nice Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) as employment legislation is devolved in Northern Eire.

For Northern Eire steering, please go to:

Courts and employment tribunals determine employment standing primarily based on the legislation, and the case legislation for employment standing continuously evolves as new circumstances and appeals are heard and new precedents are set. This steering will proceed to be up to date to replicate future, vital adjustments within the legislation.

This steering doesn’t impose any authorized obligations. It doesn’t change the legislation. Solely a Courtroom or employment tribunal could make a last resolution on employment standing for employment rights functions. This steering doesn’t and can’t present definitive solutions to particular person queries. It’s not meant to be relied upon as an alternative choice to in search of recommendation on particular circumstances, as every employment relationship shall be actual fact particular.

For particular queries, people or employers could want to search recommendation from Acas. Whereas Acas can not present a dedication of employment standing in particular circumstances, they will clarify related legislation and supply free, neutral, and confidential recommendation in your choices. The Acas web site is at: www.acas.org.uk and the Acas helpline quantity is 0300 123 1100, open Monday to Friday, 8am to 6pm.

This steering doesn’t apply to tax standing as there’s a separate employment standing system for tax, which determines a person’s tax standing. In tax, there are 2 classes of employment standing; employed and self-employed, whereas employment standing for employment rights additionally has a ‘employee’ standing in between the self-employed and employed statuses. This implies the methods should not interchangeable, and so a dedication of employment standing for employment rights is not going to essentially apply for tax.

Part 2: Introduction to employment standing

What’s employment standing?

Employment standing is related in all working relationships, it defines the minimal rights and duties for people and employers or engagers within the office, overlaying areas comparable to pay, depart and dealing situations (see Desk 1: Employment rights eligibility for extra particulars about statutory employment rights). These protections have been set out or developed in legislation to make sure people are shielded from unfair practices.

Employment standing isn’t just a matter of what a contract (whether or not oral or in writing) states; it’s decided by the fact of the working relationship between employer and particular person, taking account of all of the circumstances together with the aim of employment laws. The written contract is only one a part of that evaluation.

Though there are numerous totally different working relationships that people and companies can comply with, the legislation reduces these into one among three predominant forms of standing for employment rights. Nevertheless, there are particular provisions for different teams of employees comparable to company employees, see part 4 for additional particulars. The three predominant forms of employment standing are:

an worker who has essentially the most rights and duties
a employee – generally known as ‘limb (b) employees’ who’ve fewer rights and obligations. The purpose of the limb (b) employee standing is to increase the protection of sure employment rights to a wider group of people than simply staff, defending a bigger variety of people who’re in dependent working relationships however should not staff.
a self-employed individual who has the least safety but in addition tends to have fewer private obligations and have vital flexibility of their work and/or delivers a service to a buyer or consumer as a part of a enterprise or skilled endeavor

The next is a extra detailed description of every standing:


This standing displays better certainty over the place, when and the way work is carried out. The person would seemingly work frequently and be paid for finishing these hours of labor. Staff are usually people in everlasting full-time or part-time work however may also, in some circumstances, embody people on informal contracts (comparable to mounted time period and/or zero hours (see Part 6)). Staff are typically entitled to the complete suite of employment rights – the related statutory rights are defined within the Employment rights part, topic to qualifying intervals. Nevertheless, there may be additionally discretion for employers to supply extra contractual advantages to staff. For instance, an employer may present paternity depart of two months which is properly above the statutory entitlement of two weeks paternity depart.

Staff additionally profit from and are sure by different frequent legislation rights and obligations. Each statutory and customary legislation rights and obligations (physique of legislation fashioned by the choices from Courts and tribunals) are implied right into a contract of employment and can’t be overridden by the phrases of the employment contract. For instance, discover intervals, even when contractually agreed, are topic to a statutory minimal.

In comparison with different employment statuses, there are extra obligations between an employer and an worker. For instance, employers have the appropriate to be told by a sure level if one among their staff is aspiring to take maternity/paternity/adoption depart or return to their job after the depart has been taken. Whereas employers typically have the duty to supply work and remunerate accordingly.

Employees (limb (b) employees)

People on this class are much less more likely to be working in everlasting, full-time employment with a single using organisation. They’re extra more likely to have extra informal and versatile working relationships typically involving a number of and generally rival employers. Limb (b) employees are entitled to core statutory employment rights however have elevated freedom in how a lot, the place and once they work. All limb (b) employee rights are rights from day 1, the place limb (b) employees don’t want steady service or qualifying intervals to accrue their rights reflecting their extra versatile relationship to their employer(s). Nevertheless, as with the worker standing, there may be additionally discretion for employers to supply extra contractual statutory advantages past the authorized minimal to limb (b) employees, for instance, paying above the Nationwide Minimal Wage or Nationwide Residing Wage.

The limb (b) employee and employer(s) relationship ought to count on to have extra flexibility over how, the place and when work is completed in comparison with the worker standing however limb (b) employees are typically required to do the work themselves and solely have a restricted proper to ship another person. This standing nonetheless requires employers to supply people with a core set of employment protections. Many people benefit from the elevated freedom that this standing can present of their work together with balancing their work with different commitments while nonetheless benefiting from core protections.


Self-employed people ought to count on to have essentially the most flexibility and management over how, if and once they work and are typically in a position to ship another person to do the work with out vital restrictions. It’s a class for many who run and handle their very own enterprise or work, typically finest understood as people in enterprise for themselves. Typically, self-employed people haven’t any statutory employment rights however are entitled to some well being and security protections/obligations in addition to anti-discrimination rights when they’re contracted by a buyer or consumer.

For an employer or engager, you will need to perceive that the standing of a person they make use of or have interaction just isn’t merely a matter of alternative. The standing is decided by the actual nature of the working relationship, not what an employer or engager chooses to name it. Subsequently, merely calling somebody ‘self-employed’, or placing that time period in writing in a contract, doesn’t essentially imply that the person will legally be classed as self-employed. If the connection in actuality is that of a limb (b) employee or worker, then the person is entitled to limb (b) employee or worker rights no matter what it says of their contract. Deliberate misclassification of employment standing shouldn’t be used to disclaim staff or employees employment rights and protections they’re entitled to. In case you want recommendation on the employment standing of people you utilize or have interaction, or who you propose to worker or have interaction, see the guidelines for employers.

Employment rights

Employment rights and protections are set out by legislation and employers should not keep away from them. Employment rights and protections fluctuate between the totally different statuses, and a few have qualifying intervals.

There are some statutory rights which an worker will get after working repeatedly for a time period – that is known as continuity of service. Establishing enough continuity of service is important to entry these worker rights which have a qualifying interval comparable to the appropriate to not be unfairly dismissed and the appropriate to a statutory redundancy fee. Even when an individual doesn’t work each week, a Courtroom can generally discover that their relationship with their employer continues so that there’s an umbrella contract or over-arching contract overlaying a specific time period which implies there may be continuity of service. There are some detailed components of the legislation which will imply steady service is maintained, for instance if there was a short lived cessation of labor. See steady employment for additional data.

Desk 1: Employment rights eligibility

A. Employee / worker rights

B. Worker rights day 1

C. Worker rights with qualifying interval

*Additional data on employment rights and statutory funds which have comparable, however totally different eligibility standards is obtainable within the subsequent sections.

Discrimination, different prohibited conduct underneath the Equality Act 2010 and cheap changes

The Equality Act 2010 protects these in “employment” (which for this function comprise staff, limb (b) employees and a few self-employed individuals) from illegal conduct comparable to discrimination, harassment and victimisation that applies to protected traits. The protected traits are: age, incapacity, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, being pregnant and maternity, race, faith or perception, intercourse and sexual orientation. The Equality Act applies to people who’ve an employment contract, an apprenticeship contract, or a contract to personally do work. The Equality Act employment protections additionally prolong to a wide range of wider work relationships past employment, comparable to job candidates and former staff, contract employees, cops, companions, barristers and advocates, public workplace holders and people in search of or endeavor vocational coaching. Protections don’t prolong to volunteers. Learn extra about discrimination and your rights.

People who’re lined by the Equality Act 2010 and are topic to discrimination or every other illegal conduct could make a declare in an employment tribunal.

Office pension scheme

An employer should robotically enrol staff and limb (b) employees right into a office pension scheme and contribute to their pension if the entire following apply: you’re aged between 22 and State Pension age, you earn no less than £10,000 per yr for that employer and also you often (‘ordinarily’) work within the UK. Learn extra about becoming a member of a office pension.

Proper to hitch a commerce union and to take part in commerce union actions

It’s robotically unfair for an employer to dismiss an worker on the grounds of commerce union membership or for taking part in union actions at an acceptable time. Additionally it is in opposition to the legislation to refuse to recruit an individual as a limb (b) employee or worker as a result of the individual is a member of a commerce union. Employers should not topic a limb (b) employee or worker to detriment for the needs of stopping, deterring or penalising commerce union membership or participation in union actions at an acceptable time. Learn extra about becoming a member of a commerce union.

Statutory funds

All staff (and in restricted circumstances some limb (b) employees) are eligible for Statutory Maternity Pay, Shared Parental Pay, Paternity Pay, Adoption Pay, Parental Bereavement Pay and Statutory Sick Pay so long as additionally they meet different qualifying standards and earn on common above the Decrease Earnings Restrict (£123 every week earlier than tax).

Whether or not a person can get these rights is decided by reference to standards set out underneath the Social Safety Contributions and Advantages Act 1992 and by reference to different related laws. Whether or not a possible employer is an employer for Statutory Maternity Pay, Shared Parental Pay, Paternity Pay, Adoption Pay, Parental Bereavement Pay or Statutory Sick Pay functions is linked to their obligation to pay secondary Class 1 Nationwide Insurance coverage Contributions, somewhat than the employment rights framework.

Different employment frameworks and entitlements

The employment standing framework for tax and Nationwide Insurance coverage is separate to the employment rights framework and contains two classes: worker and self-employed. Whether or not a person is classed as an worker or self-employed for tax functions impacts the tax and Nationwide Insurance coverage they pay and the way they pay them, and the person’s entitlement to some social safety advantages. Employment standing for tax is a matter of reality (as it’s for employment rights and protections) and isn’t a alternative for the person or their engager. Because of this the info and circumstances of the engagement decide what employment standing a person has, somewhat than a choice by themselves or their engager to assign them a particular employment standing, or perception that they’ve a specific standing. Within the majority of circumstances, employment standing for tax functions is obvious and easy to ascertain, however in conditions the place it’s extra advanced, HMRC has detailed steering for people and employers. Tax and Nationwide Insurance coverage laws additionally requires that some engagements are handled as employment for tax functions the place there may be not a contract of employment between the person and the recipient of their providers. This consists of workplace holders, comparable to firm administrators, and, the place sure situations are met, employees provided by businesses or working via Private Service Corporations. You need to use HMRC’s free on-line Test employment standing for tax (CEST) instrument to seek out out if a person must be classed as employed or self-employed for tax functions.

The employment standing framework for Common Credit score can also be separate to the employment rights framework and customarily follows the definitions for tax and Nationwide Insurance coverage, comprising two classes: worker and self-employed. The primary distinction between Common Credit score and the therapy of tax and Nationwide Insurance coverage is that the place a claimant operates via an organization able corresponding to a sole dealer or, one among a small variety of companions (i.e. they’re the only proprietor of the corporate or one among a small variety of shareholders) they’re handled as self-employed in the identical manner as somebody buying and selling and not using a firm construction. Discover out extra about Common credit score for self-employed claimants.

Maternity Allowance is a profit meant for many who can not get Statutory Maternity Pay, such because the low paid and the self-employed. Entitlement to Maternity Allowance relies on satisfying qualifying situations. For self-employed girls this entails being registered as self-employed with HMRC in line with their guidelines for no less than 26 weeks within the 66 weeks instantly previous the anticipated week of delivery. The quantity of Maternity Allowance acquired by self-employed girls relies upon the variety of class 2 Nationwide Insurance coverage contributions paid for those self same 66 weeks. Self-employed girls who’ve paid 13 weeks of Class 2 Nationwide Insurance coverage contributions within the 66-week interval are handled as having enough earnings to entitle them to the usual charge. Discover out extra about Maternity allowance.

Part 3: Key components in figuring out employment standing

Employment standing shall be primarily ruled by the fact of the connection between the person and the organisation. The absence of a written contract or the truth that a contract between the two could specify a specific standing just isn’t conclusive if that doesn’t correspond to what occurs in actuality.

The Employment Rights Act 1996 units out a lot of the employment rights and protections in Nice Britain. Within the Employment Rights Act 1996, Part 230, each worker and employee are outlined within the laws. An worker additionally comes underneath half (a) of the definition of employee and is typically known as ‘limb (a)’, as they work underneath a contract of employment. Contract of employment means a contract of service or apprenticeship, whether or not specific or implied, and (whether it is specific) whether or not oral or in writing. Half (b) of the employee definition, ‘a limb (b) employee’ covers an individual who works underneath every other contract whereby the person undertakes the work or performs providers personally and the opposite celebration to the contract just isn’t a consumer or buyer of any career or enterprise carried on by the person.

Primarily based on the laws and case legislation, it’s best to contemplate for the needs of employment legislation that there are 3 employment statuses in Nice Britain:

1. Worker: the place it may be decided {that a} contract of employment exists. Staff are entitled to all employment rights topic, the place acceptable, to qualifying intervals and generally different qualifying standards.

2. Limb (b) employee: the place it may be decided that every other contract by which the person performs work or providers personally for another person (until the person is engaged on a genuinely self-employed foundation for a consumer or buyer) exists. Limb (b) employees are entitled to core day 1 statutory employment rights.

3. Self-employed – not outlined within the laws however finest understood as individuals who keep on a career or enterprise on their very own account and enter into contracts with purchasers or prospects to supply work or providers for them and/or should not obliged to do the work they contract to personally.

The Courts have thought of many various circumstances and there are a variety of rules to be utilized. This steering helps to set these rules out. This has ensured the laws’s intention is upheld while sustaining the pliability of the Courts to adapt to fashionable working practices.

Most of the identical components shall be thought of when figuring out if somebody is an worker or a limb (b) employee, however with the next threshold for an worker. The weighting of every issue will fluctuate relying on the connection in query and is a judgement primarily based on the entire image of the person case. This enables the Courts to evaluate the fact of the connection between the person and the employer. The Courts will even take into account Parliament’s intention in enacting employment laws – particularly to guard those that are depending on an employer for his or her livelihood.

Worker standing

Over time the Courts have developed a spread of checks to establish whether or not a person is an worker. The next necessities should be happy to ensure that a person to be an worker:

private service – the worker has to do the work themselves (there could also be a restricted proper to ship another person). For instance, an worker on a 9-5pm contract, who is predicted to show up on daily basis and perform work for his or her employer would fulfill this take a look at. However, if the person can ship anybody else of their place (with no restrictions) that won’t be private service and the person is not going to be an worker. Nevertheless, even when there’s a contractual proper to supply a substitute however the events haven’t any intention of counting on it and/or it doesn’t replicate how the settlement works in apply, this doesn’t stop private service from being established

management – the employer is accountable for the worker. Management is finest understood as how a lot freedom the person has to determine for themselves over how, the place, and when the work is completed. Components to contemplate can embody who offers out the work, who specifies how, the place and when it’s to be finished, who units the speed of pay for every project, who supplies the tools, or whether or not the person has to put on a uniform or particular branding. Daily management of labor just isn’t a requirement, however the employer will need to have final management by retaining a proper to present directions and for the worker to comply with them (offered they had been cheap) or be prone to disciplinary actions as much as and together with dismissal

mutuality of obligation – is a particular form of two-way duty – this shall be current throughout any interval when the employer should present work and the worker should do the work offered. A person just isn’t an worker in periods when they aren’t working if there isn’t a dedication to simply accept additional work which can be supplied

Limb (b) employee standing

The next necessities should be happy to ensure that a person to be a limb (b) employee:

any contract (not a contract of employment) whereby a person undertakes to carry out work or providers for the opposite celebration. A contract could also be oral or in writing however to ensure that there to be a contract there should be an change of consideration, for instance, every celebration should present one thing of worth to the opposite celebration such because the work or service being exchanged for wages

private service – mirrors the take a look at for worker, that’s, does the employee have to hold out the work themselves. Moreover, an individual should still be a limb (b) employee if they’ve a restricted or occasional proper to supply a substitute. However, an infinite and unrestricted proper to substitution that’s exercised for this take a look at would strengthen arguments for the self-employed standing

is the individual working as a part of their very own skilled or enterprise endeavor and the opposite celebration to the contract is a consumer or buyer? The character of the contract should be that the connection between the events just isn’t between an impartial enterprise and an impartial consumer/buyer as that will indicate the person is self-employed. Components that could be related are the diploma of management exercised by the employer. This may embody, whether or not the best way wherein the service is offered may be very tightly outlined and managed by the employer, whether or not the person supplies the service in their very own title or the title of the enterprise the person is working for, who advantages from buyer loyalty and goodwill generated by the availability of the service, who units the speed of pay, who does the consumer pay, what monetary danger does the person take, the exclusivity of the engagement (does the person work with different purchasers/prospects) and its typical period, what tools the employee provides and/or the extent of danger undertaken by the employee.

Finally, Parliament’s intention in enacting employment laws recognised that staff and limb (b) employees had been in a weak place with their employers and required statutory safety. The better the diploma of management exercised by the employer over the work or providers carried out by the person involved the extra seemingly the individual is to be an worker or a limb (b) employee.

Different components that could be related to staff, limb (b) employees and the self-employed

Phrases and situations of the contract

Employment standing isn’t just a matter of what the contract (whether or not oral or in writing) states or the kind of contract you’re on (for instance everlasting, zero-hours, informal or company); it’s decided by the fact of the working relationship between the employer and the person. It takes account of all of the circumstances together with the aim of employment laws, of which the written contract (if there may be one) is only one side.

Even when an employer makes an attempt to create a special employment standing via the phrases of the contract, if this doesn’t replicate the fact of the settlement, this doesn’t change the authorized employment standing of the person which relies upon solely on the true actuality of the connection. Any phrases which purpose to exclude/restrict employment rights of particular person(s) by in search of to keep away from worker or limb (b) employee standing are of no impact and shall be disregarded by the Courts.


A person enters a contract with their employer to carry out work the place they’re described as ‘self-employed’. This contract could have a clause which removes one of many key rules for satisfying the worker standing e.g. a clause offering that the employer doesn’t have to supply any work after which particular person doesn’t have to simply accept any work (a mutuality of obligation clause). If this doesn’t replicate the fact of the connection and there may be in actual fact mutuality of obligation, then the person could be an worker although the contract acknowledged the person was self-employed.

Monetary danger

On the whole phrases, the better the monetary danger (for instance, buying property to make use of or solely being paid if the work is efficiently accomplished) the extra seemingly that this shall be in line with self-employment. Nevertheless, the absence of monetary danger doesn’t robotically imply the individual is an worker or a limb (b) employee.


A person pays to undertake their very own skilled accounting {qualifications} with the ambition of working their very own accountancy agency, gathering fee for work accomplished for various purchasers. On this circumstance, as the person paid for their very own exams in an effort to prepare and apply accountancy (somewhat than it being paid for by the employer) the person undertook some monetary danger. This issue might be used to strengthen arguments to self-employment, if different components had been additionally in line with this employment standing.

Integral to the organisation

In sure circumstances, integration to the organisation is usually a issue in line with worker or limb (b) employee standing. Examples of this may embody that the people help different members of a crew, are a part of a administration construction or are topic to firm disciplinary procedures. The existence of those components can level in direction of limb (b) employee or worker standing. Nevertheless, their absence just isn’t deadly to establishing worker or limb (b) employee standing, notably the place it’s a part of a calculated place by the employer to keep away from employee standing.


A person has a supervisor within the enterprise they full work for that allocates them work. The person can also be in a position to advise and help different members of a crew within the enterprise and is topic to the corporate disciplinary procedures and different procedures and insurance policies. This integration into the organisation might be used to assist components of an worker or limb (b) employee relationship to their employer.


Whereas not essentially decisive by itself, proof that the engager supplies the necessary tools essential to do the job (comparable to clothes, instruments) is usually a pointer in direction of worker or limb (b) employee standing.


Tv salesmen had been being provided with automobiles by their employer and using employer tools was a related think about figuring out their worker standing in a Courtroom case.

How the person is paid

A person that’s paid by reference to their output or revenue share somewhat than hourly wage or annual wage is extra more likely to be in line with self-employed standing. Nevertheless, additionally it is attainable for an worker or different employee to be paid by reference to their output (comparable to items produced, or duties carried out).


An workplace employee is paid £15 an hour for his or her function as a receptionist, finishing on common 20 hours of labor every week. As the person is paid for his or her time, versus output, this issue is more likely to be in line with a limb (b) employee or worker employment standing.

Exclusivity of the association

This considerations a person’s means to work with different rival companies. On the whole phrases, the extra unique the association, the extra seemingly that this may be in line with worker standing. Exclusivity might also be a pointer to limb (b) employee standing, however as limb (b) employees typically have extra flexibility in working for various (and generally rival) organisations it might not be decisive.


A marketing consultant works for a lot of totally different organisations, with various purchasers every week. This issue makes it extra seemingly the person could also be self-employed.


A person supplies their providers as a driver via a lot of totally different apps. They’re free to decide on which app to make use of to acquire work, however the best way wherein they supply the service via every app is tightly constrained by the related app. Whereas the liberty to work for rival companies could level in direction of self-employment, the extent of management to which the person is topic when working via any app could level in direction of limb (b) employee standing.

Genuinely in enterprise by yourself account

Is finest understood as working your individual enterprise and is commonly linked to different components comparable to offering or utilizing your individual tools, having monetary danger in your work and/or whether or not you had a pre-existing enterprise. If the person supplies or makes use of their very own tools, has monetary danger of their work and/or had a pre-existing impartial enterprise, the person could also be extra more likely to be self-employed. Nevertheless, the presence of any of those components together with a pre-existing enterprise just isn’t deadly to an individual being both a employee or an worker. It should depend upon an evaluation of all of the circumstances.


A painter provides their very own paint and brushes, has direct relations with their purchasers/prospects and negotiates the speed of pay for every particular person buyer. These components make it extra seemingly the person is genuinely in enterprise on their very own account and self-employed.

Part 4: Particular circumstances and developments within the labour market

Gig economic system

New types of work have emerged within the so-called ‘digital / gig / platform / crowd’ economies. Current courtroom circumstances have proven that the aim of employment legislation is to guard these working for others and no matter whether or not you’re employed within the gig economic system, for those who fulfill the checks round worker or limb (b) employee standing you may be entitled to the corresponding statutory employment rights and protections (as described within the Employment rights desk. The instance beneath supplies an instance of how management could be exerted by an employer (or engager) in a digital setting through an app. The management within the instance can be sufficient to fulfill the limb (b) employee standing, offering different components had been additionally constant.

Instance of management through an app

the engager restricts communication between the passenger and the driving force to the minimal essential to carry out the actual journey and takes energetic steps to stop drivers from establishing any relationship with a passenger able to extending past a person journey
the remuneration paid to drivers for the work they do is mounted by the engager and the drivers haven’t any say in it (apart from by selecting when and the way a lot to work). The engager fixes its personal “service payment” which it deducts from the fares paid to drivers. The notional freedom to cost a passenger lower than the fare set by engager is of no attainable profit to drivers as any low cost supplied would come solely out of the driving force’s pocket
the contractual phrases on which drivers carry out their providers are dictated by the engager
though drivers have the liberty to decide on when to work, as soon as a driver has logged onto the engager’s app, a driver’s alternative about whether or not to simply accept requests for rides is constrained by the engager
the engager workout routines a big diploma of management over the best way wherein drivers ship their providers (vets the kind of automobile and makes use of the know-how to train management over the drivers)

The place a person is a limb (b) employee or an worker, in all circumstances their employer should decide the employee’s working time for Nationwide Minimal Wage functions. For additional particulars for figuring out working time for the needs of the Nationwide Minimal Wage or the Nationwide Residing Wage, together with for gig economic system / platform companies see How you can calculate the Minimal Wage.

Zero-hours contracts

Typically, that is finest understood as a working association wherein the employer doesn’t assure the person any work, and the person just isn’t obliged to simply accept any work supplied. Zero-hours contracts can enable employers to adapt to adjustments of their circumstances, supporting workforce flexibility, making it simpler to rent new workers, and growing the pool of individuals out there to work. These contracts may also give people extra alternative and the power to mix their work and different commitments comparable to for many who are retired or with caring duties. For instance, zero-hours contracts are used within the hospitality sector the place service take up or demand can’t be assured, or within the healthcare sector for employees that work as locums in a specialised function comparable to a surgeon or physician and versatile working fits their present circumstances.

The employment standing of a person on a zero-hours contract will depend upon the info of the connection and as such, a zero-hours contract doesn’t dictate your employment standing and a person may qualify for any employment standing (worker, limb (b) employee or self-employed) for employment rights functions. An instance of people on zero-hours contracts who had been discovered to be staff by the Courts could be seen on this instance:


A variety of care employees signal a contract labelled zero-hours contract which features a ‘no mutuality of obligation’ clause. Nevertheless, this clause doesn’t replicate the true settlement between the 2 events because the care employees are required to undertake work frequently and perform that work in specialist positions that are essential for the employer’s enterprise. General, the fact of the working relationship right here is more likely to be that the settlement does consists of mutual obligations for the people to simply accept shifts and for the employer to supply work. The employees are due to this fact extra seemingly than to not be staff.

Freelancers, contractors, consultants and interims

There isn’t any definition of those classes in laws. Though freelancers, contractors, consultants and interims are sometimes self-employed, they might be both self-employed, a limb (b) employee or an worker relying on the fact of the connection, whether or not they work for a consumer or if they’re employed by an company or umbrella firm see the company employee part. Subsequently, a freelancer, contractor, marketing consultant and interim might be entitled to the rights related to limb (b) employee or worker standing.


A plumber endeavor a number of jobs for various prospects is more likely to be neither an worker nor a limb (b) employee. They’re more likely to be genuinely self-employed and benefit from the freedoms that this standing affords them. Nevertheless, this plumber may then safe a contract on a big contract website as one of many resident plumbers. If that is on a purely sub-contracting foundation to ship a sure job, the person should still be self-employed. But when the person is employed to hold out a private service attributable to their skillset, and is unable to ship another person of their place to hold out the work, it’s extra seemingly the person is a limb (b) employee. The plumber may due to this fact be a limb (b) employee for one contract while nonetheless being self-employed for different work contracts.

Company employees

You’re an company employee when you have a contract with an company however you’re employed quickly for a hirer. Company employees could qualify for worker or limb (b) employee employment rights relying on their relationship with their employer. Company employees are often employed by the employment enterprise itself until an middleman is concerned (i.e. an umbrella firm). It is very important establish who the employer is as they’re liable for making certain that company employees obtain employment rights.

Company employees obtain sure protections, regardless of whether or not they’re an worker or a limb (b) employee comparable to the appropriate to be paid the Nationwide Minimal Wage for hours labored, the appropriate to paid annual depart, whistleblowing protections, and pension auto-enrolment. In addition they have extra protections underneath the Employment Companies Act 1973 and the Conduct of Employment Companies and Employment Companies Rules 2003, which purpose to make sure that work-seekers have free entry to the labour market, can transfer between jobs throughout the labour market, and may use the recruitment sector with confidence. In addition they obtain protections underneath the Company Employees Rules 2010. This provides company employees the entitlement to the identical core employment and dealing situations as if they’d been recruited straight. Some protections apply from day 1 and a few will apply solely as soon as they full the 12-week qualifying interval in the identical function with the identical hirer. Learn extra about company employees’ rights in addition to data particularly on how and what they should be paid when working via an umbrella firm.


A substitute trainer’s working relationship is that they work on a set project for six months. The trainer just isn’t employed straight by the college as a substitute they’re on a contract with an employment company. On this instance, the trainer’s employer is the employment company and is due to this fact liable for making certain they get the rights they’re entitled to, whether or not they’re an worker, employee or contracted as self-employed.

Worker shareholder standing

Worker shareholder is a separate employment standing. Most staff who personal shares in an organization they work for don’t fall underneath the worker shareholder standing and maintain their worker standing. Employers should comply with sure guidelines when providing employment shareholder standing to their staff.

An worker shareholder is somebody who works underneath an employment contract and owns no less than £2,000 price of shares within the employer’s firm or mum or dad firm. While employers can select to supply extra beneficiant employment rights than the statutory ones, worker shareholders are entitled to all worker employment rights aside from:

safety in opposition to unfair dismissal – aside from dismissal on grounds of discrimination and in relation to well being and security
statutory redundancy pay
the appropriate to request versatile working – besides within the 2 weeks after getting back from parental depart
sure statutory rights to request break day for coaching

Worker shareholders should give 16 weeks’ discover in the event that they wish to come again early from:

Workplace holders, police and the armed forces

There are particular provisions which apply to workplace holders, (for instance which incorporates sure firm administrators, clergy, judges), cops and members of the Armed Forces and particular recommendation must be taken.


Volunteers should not outlined in main laws, though Part 44 of the Nationwide Minimal Wage Act 1998 does present an exemption for ‘voluntary employees’. Volunteers should not unique to the charitable sector and could be discovered throughout each the private and non-private sector. Most volunteers take part on this manner both for philanthropic causes, or to construct expertise and expertise in a given space. Volunteers should not legally obliged to work a set variety of hours or in any respect. Volunteers who willingly settle for to be engaged on a voluntary foundation are neither staff nor limb (b) employees and due to this fact not entitled to any employment proper related to these statuses. Nevertheless, for some, the roles they are going to be endeavor shall be similar to, if not the identical as, paid people alongside them. Volunteers aren’t paid for his or her time however could be paid for any out-of-pocket bills. These bills may embody journey, postage and phone prices if working from residence, and important tools, comparable to protecting clothes. If a volunteer receives any sort of reward or fee apart from bills, this might affect their employment standing, they usually might be classed as an ‘worker’ or ‘employee’ and due to this fact be entitled to employment rights and protections.


Internships are generally known as work placements or work expertise and are typically understood as being the place a person works in order to achieve related skilled expertise to enhance their profession prospects. These phrases haven’t any authorized standing on their very own and don’t dictate a person’s employment standing. Interns could be volunteers, limb (b) employees or staff relying on the info of the connection. If they’re a limb (b) employee or worker, they’re entitled to precisely the identical employment rights as every other limb (b) employee or worker. Nevertheless, true volunteers should not entitled to employment rights. For instance, an employer wouldn’t should pay the minimal wage if a person is endeavor work expertise that solely entails shadowing an worker, that means no work is carried out and they’re solely observing.


Apprentices are entitled to the identical employment rights as different staff working at comparable grades or in comparable roles (together with paid holidays, sick pay, and different advantages and assist). Apprentices should spend no less than 20% of their regular working hours coaching and the Nationwide Minimal Wage charge is totally different for apprentices.

Part 5: Case research and sectoral examples

These indicative examples spotlight how components in several sectoral working relationships could be thought of when figuring out employment standing. The worker or limb (b) employee checks apply throughout all sectors.

Case research: Limb (b) employee within the transport sector


A courier driver works for a lot of organisations together with a supply agency, for which they full a spread of shifts every week on a zero-hours contract. After they arrive for work with this supply agency, they’re given an inventory of the packages that should be delivered in a specified order and with a specified path to comply with. The driving force should use their very own van, put on the organisation’s uniform and stick-on car branding from the supply agency. They’re paid per supply (although there isn’t a scope to fluctuate the route/order). The driving force additionally has a restricted proper to sub-contract the work in the event that they had been unable to work – they need to notify the corporate and the substitute driver will need to have accomplished an identical coaching course.

For the aim of their relationship with this supply agency, it appears seemingly the person just isn’t working as a part of their very own skilled enterprise because the diploma of management exerted by the supply agency is simply too nice. The courier driver is predicted to finish the shifts they’ve accepted, use firm branding and uniform, and comply with required routes. The driving force additionally seems to be required to supply a level of private service that’s extra appropriate with limb (b) employee or worker standing than self-employed standing as they solely have a restricted proper to subcontract with a person who has accomplished comparable coaching. The person due to this fact satisfies the private service requirement and is working underneath a level of management which is in line with limb (b) employee standing. There are different related components for this instance comparable to that the person just isn’t topic to an unique relationship and works for different organisations, is paid per supply versus a wage and supplies their very own van (tools) pointing in direction of a extra versatile working association than an worker. General, it’s seemingly this particular person is a limb (b) employee.

Case research: Self-employed developer within the skilled enterprise providers sector


An IT specialist, with a pre-existing impartial enterprise, is introduced into a big organisation to work on a mission for 3 months, just a few days every week, to enhance the organisation’s web site. The person is extremely expert as an internet site designer and throughout the mission, the person is given freedom for a way and the place the work is accomplished however there may be an expectation the specialist shall be out there throughout regular working hours of the organisation on the times they’re working. The person just isn’t topic to the identical behavioural pointers as everlasting workers and the connection just isn’t unique. The person is ready to tackle extra work throughout the size of the contract with out permission and is ready to subcontract out their work if required. The person makes use of their very own tools and is paid for his or her providers at a day charge.

General, components comparable to that the person has a excessive quantity of management for a way the work is undertaken and that the person can sub-contract their work out, it appears seemingly the person just isn’t a limb (b) employee or worker. As an alternative, these components level to the self-employed standing and that the different celebration to the contract is a consumer or buyer. This consists of that the person just isn’t built-in into the enterprise via being topic to the identical behavioural pointers as everlasting workers, the connection just isn’t unique and that the person makes use of their very own tools and has the liberty to barter their charge of pay.

Case research: Limb (b) employee within the healthcare sector


A person often works someday per week in a beauty surgical procedure apply as a plastic surgeon, with some flexibility round turning as much as work on that day. The person is extremely expert, decides how the surgical procedure must be carried out and isn’t required to put on a uniform however common private protecting tools. The work must be carried out on the surgical procedure throughout opening hours. The person is built-in into the enterprise (the beauty surgical procedure apply markets the surgeon as “our surgeon”) however additionally they run different separate companies. They’re paid on a day-rate-basis which the person has negotiated with the apply and they’re offered surgical tools to carry out the work. It’s anticipated that the person will carry out the surgical procedure themselves and the person is unable to ship a substitute.

On this instance, there may be proof of private service because the surgeon carries out the procedures themselves. Nevertheless, there may be no obligation for the apply to supply work to the surgeon and no obligation on the surgeon to simply accept provide of labor. The person is topic a low quantity of management as to how the work is carried out and necessities round uniform however there may be management for when and the place the person has to work (throughout opening hours on the surgical procedure). The association can also be not unique (because the surgeon works for different organisations), and the person has negotiated their day charge of pay versus receiving a wage. General, it appears this particular person is unlikely to be an worker as a result of the apply just isn’t obliged to supply them work, neither is the surgeon required to simply accept work. The surgeon additionally has different companies which could recommend they’re self-employed. Nevertheless, primarily based on the diploma of management that the apply exerts over the surgeon means that the surgeon’s relationship with the apply is that of a limb (b) employee somewhat than self-employed.

Case research: Worker within the hospitality sector


A resort cleaner is allotted cleansing duties at the beginning of every shift, informed what tools to make use of for every job and supplied with a uniform to put on. The person can also be supervised by a cleansing supervisor employed by the resort who checks on progress frequently, with the person’s efficiency carefully monitored. As prior resort coaching was offered, the person just isn’t entitled to ship and pay any substitute to carry out the work. The person has a contract to carry out a sure variety of hours every week and be remunerated for these hours on an hourly foundation.

The person is underneath a considerable amount of management from the resort through efficiency administration and as they’re required to put on a uniform. There’s additionally a mutual obligation to supply work and for work to be undertaken as set out of their contract, with the person not in a position to present a substitute. Different related components embody the person being an integral a part of the enterprise’ means to run, the dearth of monetary danger the person is underneath and the person’s requirement to make use of the resort’s tools to hold out the work. It’s seemingly the person is an worker.

Case research: Limb (b) employee within the development sector


A person is engaged as a contractor to help with the development of an workplace block which is working behind. The person can flip up and work as they want, answering to a foreman who offers the person a every day checklist of duties to hold out. The foreman will make common checks on the standard of the people’ work. The person will proceed to receives a commission for so long as the general constructing work takes and if the person finishes their duties early, they are going to be given extra. If the person doesn’t end, they will proceed the subsequent day. All required tools is offered. The agency expects the person to do the work personally and never ship a substitute.

The instance units out that the builder / labourer is underneath a diploma of management whereas they work as they’re monitored by the foreman. There’s additionally proof of private service because the builder/labourer just isn’t in a position to ship a substitute. General, it appears seemingly the person is a limb (b) employee. Different components are additionally in line with limb (b) employee standing somewhat than self-employed standing embody that the tools is offered by the constructing agency (not the person). Worker standing can also be much less seemingly attributable to components comparable to decrease proof of mutuality of obligation, the person’s freedom over once they work, that they’re paid for work finished versus a wage and the dearth of integration into the enterprise.

Part 6: Additional assets

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