Home Economics Grenada: Maritime Economic system Plan, March 2021

Grenada: Maritime Economic system Plan, March 2021

Income Statistics 2019 to 2020: Summary for Tables 3.12 to 3.15a

1. Ministerial statements

1.1 Grenada MEP Ministerial Assertion

Grenada has a marine house that’s over seventy (70) occasions the dimensions of its land house; subsequently, the maritime economic system represents a probably important contributor to the GDP of the nation. The maritime economic system additionally gives immense alternatives for financial progress for Grenada each inside the traditionally vital sectors (e.g., marine tourism, fisheries, mariculture, delivery) in addition to for novel financial actions (e.g., offshore renewable vitality, deep sea minerals, oil & fuel, marine biotechnology).

This MEP gives a chance for Grenada to formally discover the alternatives in addition to the crosscutting points that presently exist inside this more and more vital subsector of the nationwide economic system.

Particularly, the plan gives a chance for Grenada to synthesize all of the sector-specific plans and insurance policies which are presently applied inside the maritime house right into a single cohesive method for the event of the marine economic system that engenders the basic ideas of interconnectivity, sustainability, fairness and good governance.

The Ministry of Sport, Tradition and the Arts, Fisheries and Cooperatives wish to acknowledge the individuals from inside the public service, non-public sector and civil society that might have generously contributed their time to facilitate the manufacturing of this doc geared in the direction of increasing the economic system of Grenada. The Ministry would additionally like to increase our gratitude to the UK Authorities for the help it’s offering to Grenada through The Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme.

Hon. Yolande Bain-Horsford, Minister of Sports activities, Tradition and the Arts, Fisheries and Cooperatives

1.2 Ministerial Assertion on behalf of the UK authorities

The ocean is the place life started and is important for all life on Earth. It regulates local weather and climate patterns, gives our meals, medication, vitality and different worthwhile sources, facilitates marine transport and commerce, and is stuffed with wonders we’ve hardly begun to grasp. Mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs additionally provide pure safety from the consequences of local weather change.

There’s robust scientific proof that efficient ocean safety shall be game-changing in turning issues round for local weather, for nature, and other people. For a lot of nations, particularly Small Island Growing States (SIDS), or ‘Giant Ocean States’ that’s much more vital, because the ocean is on the very coronary heart of their sustainable financial improvement and the way forward for their individuals.

This Maritime Economic system Plan presents a holistic view of the alternatives offered by the ocean for growing Grenada’s ‘blue economic system’ sustainably. It addresses points such because the position of marine tourism within the prosperity of Grenada; the necessity for accountable and sustainable coastal improvement to guard lives and houses within the occasion of utmost climate occasions; the potential of aquaculture and mariculture improvement for a extra numerous and resilient economic system; the necessity to take into account the safety of worthwhile ecosystems in nationwide planning choices; and the availability of numerous coaching and job alternatives inside the blue economic system to make sure that future generations proceed to reap the ocean’s advantages.

We’re delighted that the UK has been working in partnership with the Authorities of Grenada to develop this bespoke nationwide Maritime Economic system Plan underneath the Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme. The CME Programme has additionally been supporting Grenada by the supply of capability constructing and scientific information assortment, by the UK Hydrographic Workplace, the Centre for Atmosphere, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, and the Nationwide Oceanography Centre.

This analysis has supplied a lot wanted details about the well being and standing of the marine surroundings and the way to handle it sustainably.

By way of the CME Programme, Grenada has entry to the newly created Caribbean Fisheries Local weather Change Report Card, which defines the dangers and threats related to local weather change to the fisheries sector and choices for adaptation. Grenada has additionally benefitted from ocean modelling and monitoring which gives correct danger maps for its total coastal zone. This work has helped to help key local weather change resilience and coastal zone administration. For instance, seabed habitat maps will make sure that within the redevelopment of St George’s Harbour, and the potential improvement of a brand new port at Grenville, the position of recent port infrastructure doesn’t destroy biodiversity and important fish habitats. This work on the bottom builds a essential basis for the
suggestions contained on this Maritime Economic system Plan.

As Presidents of the twenty sixth United Nations Local weather Change Convention, the UK will make the case for ocean safety at each alternative. We’re happy to be partnering with plenty of Giant Ocean States on the frontline of local weather change to encourage local weather motion. There’s merely no path to web zero emissions, or the sustainable improvement targets, or the restoration of nature, with out efficient ocean safety and sustainable administration of the marine surroundings.

Bold and co-ordinated actions, like these outlined on this Maritime Economic system Plan, are essential for the long run well being of our ocean. We welcome this Maritime Economic system Plan, in addition to Grenada’s work with the Organisation of Japanese Caribbean States to develop a Nationwide Ocean Coverage to strengthen capability for ocean governance, in addition to coastal and marine spatial planning to facilitate the transition to a blue economic system. By working in partnership by the CME Programme, and thru tasks supported by our new British Excessive Fee in St George’s, the UK and Grenada are supporting commitments made at CHOGM 2018. That features the Commonwealth Blue Constitution, which helps Commonwealth international locations work collectively on a good, inclusive and sustainable method to ocean safety and financial improvement.

The UK Authorities stays dedicated to sustaining its monitor file as a dependable and dedicated improvement accomplice with Grenada in navigating this quickly growing maritime sphere. We share one international ocean – so we want an entire earth effort to maintain it.

Lord (Zac) Goldsmith of Richmond Park, Minister for Pacific and the Atmosphere

Lord (Tariq) Ahmad of Wimbledon Minister for South Asia and the Commonwealth and Prime Minister’s Particular
Consultant on Stopping Sexual Violence in Battle.

2. The Commonwealth Marine Economies Programme

The Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme was launched in 2016 and goals to help 17 Caribbean and Pacific Small Island Growing States (SIDS) in conserving their marine environments and taking advantage of their maritime sources to catalyse sustainable financial improvement. It’s designed to advertise progress, innovation, jobs and funding while safeguarding wholesome seas and ecosystems and it helps to handle local weather change, the UN Sustainable Growth Targets and the Paris Local weather Change Accord.

The CME Programme broadly includes three elements:

Authorities Engagement and Dialogue: The UK Authorities is dedicated to working in partnership with SIDS Governments of particular person international locations

Scientific Analysis and Capability Constructing: To sustainably handle and use marine sources, it’s critical to grasp them. As a demand-led initiative, since 2016 the Programme has been gathering information, endeavor scientific analysis and delivering capability constructing actions in opposition to a transparent motion plan developed from nation requests

Preparation of nationwide Maritime Economic system Plans: The place requested by SIDS Governments, and in partnership with them, the Programme will assess the prevailing nationwide economies and determine the alternatives and obstacles to improvement. Bespoke nationwide Maritime Economic system Plans (MEPs) shall be developed to allow particular person international locations to handle financial progress and alleviate poverty

The UK’s International, Commonwealth & Growth Workplace (FCDO) is main this Programme, which since 2016 has showcased UK world-leading experience in marine science by supply companions at the UK Hydrographic Workplace (UKHO), the Centre for Atmosphere, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas) and the Nationwide Oceanography Centre (NOC). The programme has additionally engaged a crew of technical consultants who’re working in partnership with SIDS Governments to develop nationwide Maritime Economic system Plans. Examples of the work carried out in partnership with Grenada are supplied in Part 1.5.

On the Commonwealth Heads of Authorities assembly in April 2018, 53 international locations agreed the landmark Commonwealth Blue Constitution, a daring dedication that units out how member states will lead worldwide efforts to sustainably develop and shield our ocean. The CME Programme helps the goals of the Commonwealth Blue Constitution and is an integral a part of the UK’s effort to guard the well being of the world’s oceans and promote the expansion of blue economies.

3. Government abstract

This Maritime Economic system Plan is a partnership initiative between the Governments of the UK and Grenada. It gives an outline of the prevailing maritime economic system of Grenada and units out priorities and actions that purpose to assist the nation exhibit a transparent imaginative and prescient and path that takes account of nationwide points, worldwide commitments and the challenges of a Small Island Growing State. Actions help financial progress, livelihoods and jobs and scale back losses from pure hazards, climate occasions and local weather change. The general goal is to assist develop the nationwide economic system in a manner that displays the goals of the Commonwealth Constitution, together with good governance, sustainable improvement, gender equality and recognising the wants of small and weak States.

The ideas of low carbon, useful resource effectivity and social inclusion have been used to form the event of this Plan. That is suitable with the idea of the ‘blue economic system’, which first emerged on the 2012 Rio+20 United Nations Convention on Sustainable Growth and recognises the necessity to maximise the huge financial potential of the ocean whereas additionally preserving it for present and future generations. Progress in the direction of a blue economic system may help obtain a variety of UN Sustainable Growth Targets (SDGs), together with SDG 14 (Life Under Water), SDG 5 (Gender Equality), SDG 8 (Respectable Work and Financial Development), SDG 7 (Inexpensive and Clear Vitality) SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), and others.

The maritime economic system contains established sectors comparable to fisheries, tourism and delivery in addition to rising actions comparable to offshore renewable vitality, aquaculture and marine biotechnology. It additionally contains the insurance policies and administration of those sectors and of the coastal and marine surroundings on which these sectors rely. This Plan describes the maritime economic system by way of Bedrock / Conventional sectors and Rising sectors, though different studies could describe it utilizing completely different classes (there is no such thing as a internationally agreed method to describe maritime economic system sectors).

Bedrock / conventional sectors
Rising sectors
Vitality – O&G ([1]), desalination
Vitality – renewables, storage, hydrogen, OTEC ([2]), SWAC ([3])
Transport, ports
Fisheries and aquaculture
New fisheries and aquaculture incl. macroalgae
Tourism – cruise, yachting, seaside / all inclusive
Tourism – eco tourism
Minerals / aggregates
Deep sea minerals / minerals

([1]) Oil and Gasoline

([2]) Ocean Thermal Vitality Conversion

([3]) Sea Water Air Conditioning

This Maritime Economic system Plan has been produced on account of a number of months of desk work, structured questionnaires, a consultative mission to Grenada and discussions with a variety of Authorities, NGO, and different stakeholders. It’s subsequently very a lot a strategic overview of Grenada’s maritime financial potential. Every maritime economic system sector was topic to a bespoke multicriteria evaluation utilizing the knowledge collected from all of the sources to think about governance, surroundings, social elements, expertise, economic system and resilience and danger.

The Maritime Economic system Plan was topic to evaluate, suggestions and replace throughout 2020 / 2021, in session with the Authorities of Grenada. As a result of COVID-19 pandemic and related journey restrictions, engagement with stakeholders was carried out remotely by a sequence of on-line conferences, telephone calls and emails.

Key findings for Grenada’s maritime economic system are:

the event of marine tourism is rising and taking part in an growing position within the nation’s prosperity, however the sector must be managed in a manner that ensures long run sustainability, notably from coastal improvement, yachting and cruise tourism

the Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP) provides a framework to develop new maritime actions and guarantee they’re carried out in a sustainable method. The NOP can act as a planning coverage steering doc to assist implement actions and suggestions on this Maritime Economic system Plan and different insurance policies

there may be presently no Nationwide Maritime Transport Coverage. Such a coverage might assist meet Worldwide Maritime Organisation (IMO) necessities round security at sea, air pollution response and flag, coastal and port state measures. This can assist to handle a few of the water high quality / port waste points in Grenada

efforts to enhance public consciousness of marine and coastal security (together with boating, swimming and many others.) are vital to handle a perceived cultural worry of the ocean, which is limiting the realisation of the alternatives of a blue economic system

the COVID-19 pandemic has had a big impression on the economic system of Grenada and the Caribbean as an entire. GDP for 2020 is anticipated to cut back by 12% in comparison with 2019. The variety of tourism guests was diminished by 59% in 2020 in comparison with 2019, with ripple results felt throughout the nation. Some companies have discovered different earnings producing options, together with on-line actions. The World Financial institution has authorised a US$25 million COVID-19 Disaster Response and Fiscal Administration Growth Coverage Credit score to help the nation’s efforts to answer the COVID-19 disaster

Actions, main actors (who must be chargeable for the actions) and desired outcomes are offered for every maritime economic system sector. These are excessive stage actions which are of strategic significance for the sector and the nation. Every sector is given a prioritisation class – Pressing, New / Wants Consideration or Properly Established.

19 actions are recognized. The Coastal Growth sector requires pressing consideration. Coastal infrastructure linked to tourism is a vital space of improvement. Administration of local weather change impacts to tourism services by local weather resilient tourism insurance policies, plans and administration of the coastal zone is essential. The event of Shoreline Administration plans to prioritise coastal erosion and danger administration plans will assist Grenada’s means to adapt to local weather change. As well as, built-in island improvement plans that take account of all improvement wants that hyperlink to local weather danger and resilience are required.

Transport and ports is a well-established sector. To be able to strengthen the sector, assessments into marine air pollution contingency planning and the capability of ports, harbours and touchdown websites to handle waste are required along with growing a technique to reinforce coaching of marine professionals and seafarers.

The fisheries sector would profit from mainstreaming the sustainable use of marine sources in nationwide insurance policies and planning frameworks to make sure cross-Authorities understanding of the significance of fisheries to livelihoods and the economic system. As well as, formalising the maritime boundaries, mapping and implementing the boundaries would help in defending fishers’ rights and jurisdiction in marine areas.

Funding in analysis and improvement of marine renewable vitality applied sciences would strengthen the established vitality sector by lowering reliability on fossil fuels in Grenada.

Aquaculture and mariculture and ecosystem companies are rising sectors which want consideration with a view to contribute sustainably to Grenada’s maritime economic system. Enterprise feasibility assessments to think about the long run path for the aquaculture and mariculture sector and updating the Nationwide Fisheries Coverage would profit the sector. An ecosystem valuation evaluation will assist to make sure that ecosystem companies are protected and regarded for future resolution making.

The creation and implementation of a Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP) coordinated and suggested by a formally established Nationwide Ocean Governance Committee (NOGC) is an overarching motion wanted to enhance linkages between present insurance policies and plans of relevance to Grenada’s marine house. Such a cross-government, built-in method is required to embed the idea of the blue economic system throughout Ministries and Departments to successfully handle, shield and improve the marine space and the financial alternatives it gives for enhancing livelihoods and equality.

The actions, points and outcomes recognized on this Maritime Economic system Plan are excessive stage, strategic points that require additional dialogue and improvement earlier than they are often applied. Acceptable sources of funding should be recognized to help this course of. The Maritime Economic system Plan has been in a position to determine organisations probably in a position to present appropriate funding, nonetheless, it was past the scope of this preliminary excessive stage method to develop the actions and determine particular funds at this stage.

The subsequent step alongside the pathway in the direction of a blue economic system is for Grenada to work throughout authorities to determine these actions which are highest precedence and which the nation is most in a position to develop and implement with a view to create detailed implementation plans and funding purposes able to attaining success with regional and nationwide improvement businesses and funds. Such packages ought to create synergies with Grenada’s NOP, Built-in Coastal Zone Administration (ICZM) Coverage and Blue Development Strategic Masterplan, hyperlink to regional actions and targets within the Caribbean (e.g. Japanese Caribbean Regional Ocean Coverage, SAMOA Pathway) and meet the goals and targets of donor international locations and organisations; and funding programme priorities. It is a important process and must be addressed in a partnership method throughout authorities and with regional organisations. The UK Authorities helps the goals of the Commonwealth Blue Constitution by the Commonwealth Marine Economies (CME) Programme. The CME Programme is supporting Caribbean and Pacific Small Island Growing States (SIDS) to protect their marine environments and profit from their maritime sources to catalyse sustainable financial improvement, while safeguarding the well being of the ocean.

4. 1. Introduction

4.1 1.1. What’s the Maritime Economic system?

A maritime economic system can embody numerous elements, from established ocean industries comparable to fisheries, tourism and maritime transport, to rising actions comparable to offshore renewable vitality, aquaculture, deep sea mining, and marine biotechnology. The combo will rely upon nationwide circumstances however will present social and financial advantages for present and future generations, restoring and defending the variety, productiveness, resilience and pure capital of marine ecosystems.

Within the context of growing Maritime Economic system Plans, the phrases marine or maritime economic system and blue economic system are thought of synonymous, such that the deal with the maritime economic system, and plans to help its improvement and progress, embody the sustainability and fairness ideas of the blue economic system.

Blue economic system has been outlined as, “financial actions that (i) happen within the marine surroundings or that (ii) use sea sources as an enter, in addition to financial actions that (iii) are concerned within the manufacturing of products or the availability of companies that can straight contribute to actions that happen within the marine surroundings”[footnote 1].

At its easiest, the blue economic system contains all financial actions (present and potential) that rely upon the existence of the ocean, both straight or not directly. For Small Island Growing States (SIDS), the blue economic system typically includes nearly all of the nationwide economic system, with so many financial actions depending on the ocean. Interactions between financial, ecological and social pursuits on land and at sea, subsequently, change into symbiotic and tough to disentangle, such {that a} improvement on one aspect of the land/sea interface impacts the opposite.

4.2 1.1.1. Sectors within the Maritime Economic system

The maritime economic system could be divided and subdivided in some ways, with high-level generic divisions comparable to ‘Harvesting of sources’, ‘Commerce and commerce’, and ‘Ecosystem companies’ giving method to extra detailed classes primarily based on particular and established ocean industries comparable to ‘fishing’, ‘delivery’ or ‘tourism’. These could be subdivided additional – ‘fishing’ could be divided by vessel measurement, catch technique or goal species and might embody onshore actions comparable to promoting and processing or supporting actions comparable to netmaking and restore or chandlery and vessel upkeep.

A key step within the improvement of sustainable Maritime Economic system Plans is to analyse present maritime sectors, referred to as ‘bedrock’ or conventional sectors, to assist their transition to extra sustainable practices, the place wanted. Consideration is given to the potential for growing new sustainable maritime actions to switch these which are in decline or diversify the economic system. Pure capital / ecosystem companies are additionally taken into consideration as these underpin so many financial sectors and actions.

Determine 1 – A conceptual diagram of the sectors and interactions inside the blue economic system[footnote 2]

Marine ecosystem companies

Pure sources and the financial profit derived from them, whether or not particularly measured and included in financial valuations or not, are sometimes termed ‘ecosystem companies’ and are additionally thought of as a part of the blue economic system.

These historically non-monetised sources, such because the coastal defence profit derived from reefs, are more and more being explicitly thought of in administration choices and are integral to the worth and help of the blue economic system as they underpin and help lots of the conventional sectors comparable to fishing and tourism.

4.3 1.2. What’s a Maritime Economic system Plan?

There are various forms of plan used and utilized within the administration of the marine space. Most international locations have some type of planning of their marine space already, even when they don’t seem to be particularly known as a ‘Marine Plan’ e.g. designation of delivery / navigation lanes or the identification of protected areas for conservation or fishing. Planning helps to speak and obtain targets. Planning, as a course of, is vital for a variety of causes:

will increase effectivity by avoiding actions that don’t work in the direction of the said targets of the plan and by serving to to organise sources

facilitates coordination between organisations – everybody is aware of what the targets are and helps to outline roles and obligations

helps to take care of administration management over actions

helps facilitate constant resolution making

4.4 1.3.  How you can use this Plan

this Plan solely considers sustainable (blue) practices and is worried with finance and economics of the Grenada Marine Space. It focuses on alternatives and dangers to sustainable financial improvement and areas the place there are better alternatives / dangers

it might be used to help choices about strategic Authorities / monetary help our bodies or mechanisms for sectors to develop e.g. ought to there be monetary help for a brand new fishery, for fleet renewal, for renewable vitality provide chain improvement. Ideally, a Maritime (or Blue) Economic system Plan ought to sit beneath and help the implementation of a Nationwide Ocean Coverage

it isn’t the intention that this Plan shall be used to tell particular person administration choices by regulators about which particular person actions ought to / shouldn’t be permitted in a specific place / time – that is the position of a Marine Spatial Plan

it doesn’t set priorities for all actions / makes use of – there are actions that happen within the marine space which don’t have a ‘conventional’ financial profit that aren’t included (e.g. cultural use, panorama/ seascape, non-use values, recreation, well being advantages). Such actions and makes use of will nonetheless be enshrined inside a Nationwide Ocean Coverage (which can sit above this plan) or be offered inside a Marine Spatial Plan, which could sit alongside this doc

it doesn’t include administration measures, however could determine how administration could be financed e.g. consumer entry charges for leisure diving areas, blue bonds, and many others

Determine 2 – Sorts of marine plan and the way they relate to one another

4.5 1.4. Advantages of a Maritime Economic system Plan for Grenada

Maritime Economic system Plans (MEPs) allow an evaluation of present maritime sectors to be undertaken with a view to assist the transition to extra sustainable practices, the place wanted, and to think about the potential for growing new, sustainable marine actions. The work identifies the bedrock / conventional sectors of the maritime economic system, the rising sectors and the pure capital / ecosystem companies utilised.

Having a Maritime Economic system Plan helps to exhibit that there’s a clear imaginative and prescient and path for the event of a sustainable maritime economic system that takes account of nationwide points, worldwide commitments, comparable to working in the direction of the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Growth Targets (SDGs), with explicit reference to SDG14 – Life Under Water, and the challenges related to plenty of themes shared by Grenada and different SIDS, comparable to:

excessive dependency on imports for vitality – the principle supply of vitality is from hydrocarbons that need to be imported

excessive dependency on imports for meals provide

reliance on one or just a few financial sectors (e.g. fishing, tourism, and many others)

massive ocean useful resource, with potential for brand new / rising sector progress (e.g. biotechnology, renewable vitality, minerals, and many others).

capability constraints to successfully handle / exploit sustainably a big ocean space / useful resource – comparatively small inhabitants, authorities, useful resource (e.g. navy, analysis / exploration functionality)

weak to financial and environmental shocks (e.g. earthquakes, tsunami, hurricanes), together with these pushed by local weather change (e.g. sea stage rise, ocean acidification) with low resilience / means to get better

regional co-operation and organisations are properly established (these could also be sector particular e.g. fisheries, or extra huge ranging)

distant areas – will increase prices for each imports and exports of products and companies

excessive ranges of poverty / social inequality – have to make progress inclusive to learn all

excessive nation debt and excessive relative proportion of presidency price range on servicing debt

The general goal is to develop the nationwide economic system, such that the nation turns into economically resilient and fewer reliant on monetary assist. Additionally it is meant to mirror the goals of the Commonwealth Constitution, together with good governance, sustainable improvement, gender equality and recognising the wants of small and weak States.

4.6 1.5.  The Commonwealth Marine Economies Programme in Grenada

Plenty of precedence actions have been carried out in Grenada underneath the CME Programme, following an preliminary spherical of nationwide engagement on nation priorities in 2016. These embody:

provide of recent navigation charts and coaching in using new maps and bathymetric information

manufacturing of a Maritime Security Data improvement plan to help port authorities with compliance of worldwide delivery laws

provision of information on coastal sensitivity to grease spills and danger of introduction of non-native species for the nationwide and regional catastrophe administration groups

coastal property and group vulnerability danger evaluation in opposition to local weather change

coaching on measuring sea stage, floor winds and waves to assist predict pure hazards

the event of habitat maps that shall be key to making sure that the position of recent port infrastructure won’t destroy biodiversity and important fish habitat

Blue Carbon report on seagrasses and mangroves that helps Pure Capital Accounting, earlier financial assessments of blue carbon and the Grenada Nationwide Ecosystem Evaluation

nationwide coastal danger evaluation work that required bathymetric surveys and nationwide and regional ocean modelling. This produced a danger map of your complete coastal zone of Grenada to facilitate planning for preventative or mitigative measures to minimise danger to coastal infrastructure and native communities within the face of such pure hazards. This work has allowed assessments to be made for the redevelopment of St George’s Harbour and a possible new port at Grenville on the east coast

Regional Caribbean initiatives:

ocean modelling and monitoring utilizing the Caribbean regional Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) mannequin to validate water stage, currents, temperature and salinity information to help local weather change resilience and decision-making

improvement of the Caribbean Regional Local weather Change Report Card to obviously outline the dangers and threats related to local weather change in weak areas. This report card was used as a proper submission by the area into the UNFCCC course of
Hydrographic governance coaching and motion planning to assist determine and prioritise hydrographic information gaps and capability necessities, primarily based on financial dangers, alternatives, security at sea (e.g. ship-wrecks), surroundings and disaster administration
improvement of a danger register, record of case research and steering to enhance the planning, design, and set up of subsea cables to cut back danger from hazards. This can enhance understanding of the impression of hazardous occasions to communications cables and their causes; and subsequently, enhance telecommunications resilience
manufacturing of a fisheries Report Card for the Caribbean on growing the resilience of the sector to local weather change
improvement of a report and workshop to lift consciousness of renewable vitality alternatives within the Caribbean
improvement of a spiny lobster larval dispersal mannequin for the Caribbean to tell the evaluation of the potential for spiny lobster aquaculture within the area (Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines)

5. Grenada’s Maritime Economic system

5.1 2.1. Background

Grenada is a tri-island nation comprising the islands of Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique, and is among the most southerly of the Windward Islands within the Japanese Caribbean. The wants, challenges and improvement alternatives of the smaller islands are intimately linked with the ocean and distinct from these of the island of Grenada.

Determine 3 – Map of Grenada

Supply: https://www.worldometers.information/maps/grenada-map/

Hurricanes Ivan and Emily in 2004 and 2005 considerably impacted Grenada’s economic system, such that some sectors are usually not totally recovered even now. The whole injury from Hurricane Ivan alone was estimated at twice Grenada’s GDP (Govt. of Grenada, 2017)[footnote 3]. Between 2000 and 2005 actual GDP progress averaged about 5.5% per yr however then decreased yearly to 2012, on account of climate occasions, international financial crises and a discount in US vacationer guests. GDP has since returned to progress[footnote 4].

Grenada has a largely tourism-based, small, open economic system that has shifted from one which was agriculture-dominant into one that’s services-dominant, with tourism serving because the main international foreign money incomes sector.

Agriculture and fishing stay vital sectors, dominating exports – nutmeg and mace, cocoa; contemporary fruit and greens and contemporary fish account for round 50% of Grenada’s exports (OEC web site)[footnote 6].

Grenada’s financial progress is predicted to proceed, whereas each unemployment and public debt are predicted to proceed to fall. The Citizenship-By-Funding (CBI) programme is each financing the exterior deficit and supporting financial progress (IMF web site)7. The Caribbean Growth Financial institution (CDB) tasks financial progress of 4.5%, with related outcomes anticipated over the medium time period (CDB, 2018).

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a big impression on the economic system of Grenada and the Caribbean as an entire. Grenada’s GDP grew an estimated 3.1% in 2019 pushed by robust exercise within the development and tourism sectors. Nevertheless, as a result of COVID-19 pandemic that is anticipated to cut back by 12% for 2020. It’s forecast to rise to six.1% in 2021 topic to the post-pandemic international financial restoration.

The variety of tourism guests was diminished by 59% in 2020 in comparison with 2019, leading to a discount within the resort and tourism sector and resulting in a big fall in employment within the sector. Ripple results of the COVID-19 pandemic have been felt throughout the nation with closure of instructional establishments, cessation of non-essential financial and social actions, alongside dwindling development and funding exercise.

Companies have diversified their actions and have discovered different earnings producing options. Plenty of new industries have been developed, notably on-line companies. Grenada Industrial Growth Company (GIDC) and Grenada Chamber of Trade and Commerce (GCIC) take into account that Grenada might diversify its economic system by offering a platform for corporations seeking to outsource their IT companies.

In December 2020, the World Financial institution authorised a US$25 million Grenada COVID-19 Disaster Response and Fiscal Administration Growth Coverage Credit score to help the nation’s efforts to answer the COVID-19 disaster within the quick time period and improve long-term sustainability.

Desk 1 – Chosen financial indicators


Actual GDP Development (%)
Common Inflation %)
Unemployment (%)
Main Stability

(% of GDP)
Public Sector Debt

(% of GDP)
GDP Present US$ bna,



Supply: Caribbean Growth Financial institution, 2018[footnote 5]

a, World Financial institution web site https://information.worldbank.org/nation/grenada

5.2 2.2.  Present Financial Sectors

2.2.1.  Context

Each facet of a SIDS’s economic system could be thought of as being linked to the maritime economic system due to the dependence on maritime actors in importing essential gear and exporting produce to native and wider markets.

The tourism and transport sectors are to be the principle drivers of progress, together with continued restoration within the agriculture sector. The tourism sector expanded in 2018. Keep-over arrivals rose 10.3%, with all main supply markets growing, together with a 27% enhance in cruise ship passenger arrivals. This progress in flip fuels progress within the resort and restaurant sector, which is additional supported by regional and worldwide occasions, such because the Carriacou Boat Regatta, Grenada Invitational Athletics Meet, Dive Fest, Pure Grenada Music Pageant and SpiceMas.

The development sector continues to be a significant supply of financial exercise and employment. Key private and non-private development tasks are fuelling this sector, together with the Airport growth, St. George’s College, Silver Sands Resort and the Parliament Constructing, in addition to tasks underneath the UK-Caribbean Infrastructure Fund. This sector reveals no indicators of slowing down (Ministry of Finance, 2018)[footnote 8].

Non-public Training is the biggest contributor to GDP, constituting roughly 19.3 % in 2018, and has additionally been one of many fundamental drivers of financial progress in recent times (Ministry of Finance, 2018).

2.2.2.  Maritime economic system

This part describes Grenada’s maritime economic system, utilizing the overall financial sectors set out in Desk 2.

Desk 2 – Maritime Economic system sectors

Bedrock / conventional sectors
Rising sectors
Vitality – O&G, desalination
Vitality – renewables, storage, hydrogen, OTEC
Transport, ports
Fisheries and aquaculture
New fisheries and aquaculture incl. macroalgae
Tourism – cruise, yachting, seaside / all inclusive
Tourism – eco tourism
Minerals / aggregates
Deep sea minerals / minerals

The next tables present particulars of present financial actions through a sectoral overview and abstract of financial contribution together with a brief description of rising alternatives.

[PHOTO: View of Saint George’s, the Capital of Grenada]  Bedrock sectors


Sector overview
Grenada is extremely depending on the import of fossil fuels to generate electrical energy, which makes it weak to international oil worth fluctuations. The vitality technology combine in 2015 was: diesel 98.84%, photo voltaic 1%, and wind 0.16%. Grenada goals to maneuver away from petroleum however recognises that this can’t be achieved rapidly. Main vitality consumption is dominated by transportation (~50%), adopted by the facility sector (40%). There isn’t a oil and fuel manufacturing in Grenada’s waters though there are exploration actions. Biomass is broadly used, with wooden used for cooking in residential and rural areas. Bagasse is produced and utilized by the sugarcane business and wastes from nutmeg processing even have potential for use as gas in steam turbine technology crops[footnote 9]. The Division of Vitality & Sustainable Growth within the Ministry of Finance, Planning, Financial Growth & Bodily Growth is chargeable for making certain sufficient provision of economical vitality and selling renewable vitality applied sciences[footnote 10]. Grenada Electrical energy Companies Ltd. (Grenlec) is the only supplier of electrical energy. Hurricane Ivan in 2004 destroyed 80% of the electrical energy community, that means that every little thing had to get replaced in order that Grenada now has very dependable electrical energy provision.
Financial contribution
Information on the contribution of the vitality sector to the nationwide economic system are usually not publicly out there. Grenlec plans to spend US$150m implementing renewable vitality tasks over the subsequent few years, together with the event of geothermal vitality, which might meet nearly half the nation’s electrical energy want[footnote 11]. There aren’t any information out there for individuals employed within the vitality sector.
Rising alternatives
Pure fuel has been found within the seabed to the south of Grenada. Evaluation signifies that it isn’t appropriate for industrial exploitation (GOV, 2017)[footnote 12]. The federal government is eager to grasp what sources exist and the way they may very well be exploited sustainably. Grenada has dedicated to lowering greenhouse fuel emissions to 30% of 2010 ranges by 2025 and for 100% renewable vitality by 2030 utilizing geothermal, waste-to-energy, wind, and photo voltaic. A gas levy on carbon has been imposed. There’s important potential for photo voltaic picture voltaic (PV), though most is presently small scale, utilized in homes, authorities buildings and colleges. Geothermal vitality potential is being assessed by the federal government and the Japanese Worldwide Cooperation Company (JICA)[footnote 13]. In 2017 the Caribbean Growth Financial institution (CDB) authorised ~US$230,000 to assist construct capability within the planning and use of geothermal vitality[footnote 14]. Offshore Renewable Vitality technology (ORE) is taken into account additional underneath ‘Rising Sectors’.
Cross-cutting points
Grenada sits on the southern finish of the hurricane belt and is taken into account much less vulnerable to excessive climate occasions than another Caribbean states, however it isn’t with out danger, which is prone to enhance with local weather change.
Transport and Ports
Sector overview
The primary port for Grenada is in St. George’s. It has the capability to deal with cargo and cruise passengers in two distinct areas and with cargo dealing with and container storage areas. Different ports of entry are: Prickly Bay; Port of Grenville; Tyrell Bay; Port of Hillsborough; Port of St. Davids; and Le Phare Bleu. Grenville is positioned on the east of Grenada and has two jetties which cater predominantly for small boats and ferry passengers. Prickly Bay and St. David’s are on the south coast of Grenada; each cater for leisure craft, together with massive yachts. The Osprey Ferry docks in Tyrell Bay are the location of a departure / arrival constructing alongside a big boatyard and marina. A future improve of Hillsborough port in Carriacou is deliberate to permit berthing and dealing with of passengers of worldwide and regional ferries. The development of a sister ferry terminal in Sauteurs (within the north of the principle island of Grenada), is being thought of to hyperlink the 2 islands collectively. There aren’t any ports on Petite Martinique, though there are a number of jetties. There aren’t any large-ship constructing shipyard, drydock or meeting services in Grenada, though there are corporations providing development of crusing vessels and a small shipyard in Carriacou. Boat constructing is a key historic business in Carriacou and a key financial contributor within the outer islands. Functionality exists to make conventional boats, fishing boats, yachts and 20ft lengthy pace boats. The yachting and leisure craft sector is booming. Grenada is taken into account to be under the hurricane belt and solely expenses mooring charges in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), creating an inflow of yachts that moor up in areas comparable to Carriacou and Petite Martinique, throughout the Caribbean hurricane season. Many moor up in mangrove areas and seabed habitats inflicting a number of injury. Mooring charges may very well be levied for this to pay for re-creation of those habitats, and / or the set up of much less damaging fastened moorings. The cruise ship sector continues to develop and receives robust help from the Authorities. Grenada attracts yachts, tourism and fishing vessels as a result of expertise and capability of the boatyards, the relative security of mooring in Grenada and the abundance of properly stocked chandlers. Grenada Port Authority (GPA) is the Nationwide Maritime Authority, chargeable for coping with all IMO laws, administration and operations of Authorities owned ports and regulating privately owned ports. The GPA is a part of the Ministry of Finance. Trade members are represented by the Nationwide Transport Affiliation of Grenada.
Financial contribution
The GDP of Grenada in 2017 was roughly US$ 1,065m, with US$ 445m in merchandise commerce. As an island State, round 90% of the products are transported by sea. Of the merchandise commerce, US$ 420m had been imports and US$ 25m had been exports. (UNCTAD)[footnote 15]. Information for employment figures within the maritime transport and port sector are absent and statistical information on employment are structured in a fashion that makes evaluation tough. The nation has a powerful labour union. Duty for contracting and managing stevedoring and longshoring rests with the GPA. The port at St. George’s, employed round 200 individuals in 2015[footnote 16].
Rising alternatives
The cruise and leisure craft / yachting sectors are key areas of alternative for improvement. The problem for the cruise market is to encourage longer stays, enhance spend in-country (each by guests and for vessel provides) and diversify journeys to areas aside from seashores (rainforest, tradition, and many others.). Boat constructing is vital for maritime commerce and there’s a want to preserve and develop boat constructing tasks.
Cross-cutting points
Port waste / water high quality points – there are restricted waste / waste water services. Vessels typically pump sewage direct into the ocean. Restricted water high quality monitoring – for public / environmental well being.
Sector overview
The fisheries sector is a significant supply of employment, earnings, meals safety and international trade. Nearly all of landings are tuna (yellowfin, black fin) and different pelagic species, e.g. Atlantic sailfish, billfish, dolphin fish. Roughly 70% of landings are tuna / tuna-like species which are primarily exported. Demersal fin fish making up an additional 22%. A part of the manufacturing is exported intra-regionally to islands comparable to Martinique and Guadeloupe, particularly from Carriacou. The crustacean fishery may be very small however excessive worth; primarily of Caribbean spiny lobster, queen conch and sea turtles. There’s a co-management association with St. Vincent and the Grenadines for lobsters / conch and a reciprocal association must be set between the 2 nations (fishers from Union Island have household on Petite Martinique and Carriacou and many others.). There are 45 touchdown websites across the islands, seven of that are main touchdown websites with fish market and port services, storage, ice making and vessel berths. Six of those websites are on Grenada, with the seventh on Carriacou. There are 4 processing crops which cater primarily for contemporary fish exports. The primary touchdown websites are Grenville (25%), Gouyave (22%), Carriacou & Petite Martinique (18%), Grand Mal (12%), Melville Road (11%), different secondary websites (8%), Victoria (2%), Duquesne and Sauteurs (1% every) (FAO, 2007)[footnote 17]. Gouyave has traditionally been the fishing capital of Grenada. Nearly all of fish caught is exported from the mainland. Nevertheless, Carriacou and Petite Martinique wish to develop services to export from their very own islands. There’s a draft Nationwide Fisheries Coverage in place and fisheries are included within the Nationwide Biodiversity Strategic Motion Plan (2016), Blue Development Masterplan (2016) and Marine Protected Space administration plans, however there is no such thing as a formal fisheries administration plan. The Nationwide Fisheries Coverage requires updating and finalising. Grenada is a member of the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM). The Division of Fisheries (DoF), a unit of the Ministry of Sports activities, Tradition and the Arts, Fisheries and Co-operatives, oversees the sector. Roughly 80% of the fleet is registered and licensed. Solely Grenadian registered vessels are allowed to fish in Grenada’s waters.
Financial contribution
FAO information estimates exports of fish and fish merchandise to be US$7.6m, with a fleet of round 800 vessels operated by round 3,500 fishers, most of them full time, though this information is from 2014. The secondary sector includes 70 distributors, 13 boat builders, 5 exporters (FAO Nation Profile web site).
Rising alternatives
The federal government has applied a coverage to develop the fisheries sector and enhance its contribution to earnings, employment and international trade earnings. Grenada is actively selling the FAO Code of Conduct for Accountable Fisheries. International trade earnings is especially from tuna exports and a diversification of exports and market areas provides alternatives for progress.
Cross-cutting points
Sargassum: impacts vessels, touchdown websites and inshore fisheries. The seaweed can clog engines and equipment, trigger an obstruction to passage, smother fishing areas and have an effect on water high quality. Local weather change: Attainable damaging impacts on ecosystems which are vital to industrial fish e.g. coral reefs, sea grass beds, mangroves. Altering water temperature could have an effect on pelagic species’ distributions / migrations. Improve in excessive climate occasions damaging vessels, touchdown websites, affecting commerce and impacting coastal ecosystems.
Marine mineral exploitation
Part overview
Mining in Grenada is restricted to quarrying for development supplies. A quarry in Telescope Level gives high-quality basalt rock for concrete, asphalt highway surfaces, rock armour and boulders. Gravel mining operations additionally happen in Mon Rush. Each operations are run by the state-owned Gravel, Concrete and Emulsion Manufacturing Company (GCEPC web site)[footnote 18]. Previous to 2008, seaside sand mining came about throughout the islands, to supply fundamental materials for development. Over-extraction resulted in extreme seaside erosion and damaging results to coastal infrastructure and marine habitats and the observe was banned. Telescope Level remained the one designated seaside web site for sand mining however this was additionally closed in 2009 resulting from detrimental results to the japanese shoreline. Extra just lately (2013) the federal government thought of permitting seaside sand extraction to begin once more. Sand extraction stays unlawful, besides by the GCEPC from three permitted areas – Galby and Bacolet Bay in St David and The Canals of Mt Rodney in St Patrick (NOW Grenada, 2018). Unlawful sand extraction is reported to happen.
Financial contribution
Navigational dredging takes place however doesn’t provide useable aggregates. There isn’t a deep-sea mining or export of aggregates in Grenada. Supplies for development comparable to sand proceed to be imported or mined from a few of the licenced websites, however evidently moreover offering some employment (sea-) mining doesn’t contribute considerably to the nationwide economic system. The GCEPC has been closely in debt and its total contribution to the nation’s income is restricted (NOW Grenada, 2017)[footnote 19]. Information for employment figures concerning mining, quarrying or dredging are usually not publicly out there.
Rising alternatives
There’s little alternative to develop marine mineral exploitation, as a result of restricted availability of the useful resource and the detrimental results that eradicating seaside sand has on the shoreline.
Cross-cutting points
Eradicating sand from seashores will increase the speed of coastal erosion and might impression property and land onshore in addition to have an effect on coastal habitats and species that use the seashores (e.g. turtles). Lowering seaside widths and heights will increase the impression and extent of wave impression on the coast, which may additionally enhance erosion. Such results can be prone to enhance with local weather change, extra excessive climate occasions and sea stage rise. Historic seaside erosion has affected vital property (the cemetery on Carriacou). Steeper seaside profiles with unknown depths may also pose a hazard to swimming (GAF, 2013)[footnote 20].
Sector overview
Tourism is a big driver for the Caribbean economic system. This poses a problem for Grenada to tell apart itself as a vacation spot. It markets itself as ‘Pure Grenada’; someplace that hasn’t change into over-commercialised. Marine tourism has change into the biggest single maritime financial exercise, together with yachting, boating, leisure fishing and cruising. Whereas many vacationers don’t enterprise removed from the coast, open water actions are on the rise. The yachting sector is booming and anticipated to develop, each nationally and regionally within the Japanese Caribbean. Most vacationer guests are from the US. Guests from the UK / Europe are inspired as they have a tendency to remain longer. There’s presently no Nationwide Tourism Coverage. The Grenada Tourism Authority (GTA) is chargeable for growing the tourism business. GTA actively engages with the main cruise strains, together with Royal Caribbean, Carnival Company, Norwegian Cruise Line Holding and MSC. There are round 300,000 cruise guests per yr, largely throughout October to Could, though cruise guests spend lower than non-cruise guests. This sector is anticipated to develop (Ministry of Tourism, pers. comm. 2019). Because of a public / non-public sector consultancy undertaking, GTA have agreed plenty of actions to reinforce and market Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique as a premier cruise vacation spot, together with including worth to tour packages and coaching frontline personnel.
Financial contribution
The whole contribution of journey and tourism to GDP in 2017 was US$256.1m (23.3% of whole GDP), set to rise by 5.7% per yr throughout 2018 – 2028. The business straight supported 3,000 jobs (6.4% of whole employment). That is anticipated to rise by 4.1% a yr to five,000 (9.4% of whole employment) by 2028. When oblique employment is included, the business supported 21.4% of whole employment (10,500 jobs). That is anticipated to rise to fifteen,000 jobs by 2028 (29.8% of whole). Journey & tourism funding in 2017 was US$29.2m (14% of whole funding). That is anticipated to rise by 4.5% in 2018 and by 5.2% a yr to US$50.5m by 2028 (18.2% of whole) (WTTC, 2018)[footnote 21].
Rising alternatives
GTA forecasted 6% progress in customer arrivals for 2019, supported by development of recent motels / lodging. The important thing short-term precedence is to enhance yachting guests’ expertise and develop enterprise in Grenada and hyperlink with St. Vincent & the Grenadines. The leisure boat sector has progress potential. The important thing medium-term precedence is to facilitate strategic engagement with the Nationwide Sustainable Growth Plan (NSDP) 2035 for enterprise improvement actions underneath the Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP). Alternatives must be developed taking account of the Blue Development Grasp Plan (BGMP) imaginative and prescient and the growing NOP. There’s rising curiosity in eco-tourism and wildlife experiences, that are supported by a well-managed, wholesome and secure marine surroundings, in addition to alternatives to develop customer numbers from completely different international locations e.g. China and Japan and enhance alternatives away from seashores / conventional beach-based holidays. The variety of tourism guests was diminished by 59% in 2020 in comparison with 2019, on account of the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to a fall in employment and earnings within the resort and tourism sector and knock-on results throughout the nation. The impression of COVID-19 on the tourism sector implies that a greater hyperlink with agricultural manufacturing and local weather sensible practices are required to extend the resilience of Grenada’s economic system.
Cross-cutting points
Sargassum: Impacts vessels, marinas, seashores; clogging / affecting engines and creating unpleasant and ugly smelling seashores because it decomposes. Local weather change: Unfavourable impacts to ecosystems that help tourism; enhance in excessive climate occasions damaging infrastructure, growing erosion and impacting coastal ecosystems. Sea stage rise (SLR) is predicted to extend seaside / land loss, together with to vital vacationer areas comparable to Grand Anse. Port waste / water high quality: There are restricted waste / waste water services. Vessels typically pump sewage direct into the ocean. Restricted water high quality monitoring – for public / environmental well being. There isn’t a sewage remedy provision in Grenada. Expertise and capability: Is a significant challenge by way of the administration of tasks, begin up and improvement of companies by nationals and supporting companies for the boating / yachting sector – repairs, and many others. presently would should be finished on one other island.[footnote 22]  Rising sectors

Offshore renewable vitality (ORE)
Sector overview
Caribbean commerce winds related to the equatorial latitude are attribute local weather options. Along with every day temperature associated sea breezes, offshore wind vitality technology has attracted undertaking improvement actions in some Caribbean international locations, though not but Grenada. In 2015 the Israeli firm WERPO introduced that it was in negotiation with the federal government to put in a wave vitality system in partnership with a Caribbean company. The primary wave vitality system would generate 10 MW with the potential to develop this to a second system of 100 MW[footnote 23]. The present standing of the undertaking in addition to the general wave vitality potential stays unknown. Ocean Thermal Vitality Conversion (OTEC) and Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) programs have potential use in Grenada. SWAC programs are well-recognised for his or her means to supply air con in motels and many others. and OTEC programs at the moment are at demonstration stage for electrical energy technology. Excessive common temperatures for floor sea warming and deep water for cooling programs present the useful resource capability required for the expertise. At the moment Grenada’s Prime Minister is Chair of the SIDS DOCK initiative, which is designed to attach the vitality sector in SIDS with the worldwide marketplace for finance, sustainable vitality applied sciences, and with the EU and US carbon markets and is ready to commerce the averted carbon emissions in these markets. SIDS DOCK just lately (November 2019) signed an MoU to foster the event of deep-sea Ocean Thermal Vitality Conversion and floating wind tasks in small island international locations[footnote 24].
Financial contribution
There aren’t any information on the financial contribution or employment in ORE. The sector is on the improvement stage solely. The transition in the direction of a better use of renewable vitality requires multilateral funding help.
Cross-cutting points
Entry to decrease value, sustainable vitality is a key driver to lower reliance on hydrocarbon imports and to satisfy each vitality effectivity and renewable vitality targets: > 10% electrical energy manufacturing from renewables by 2025 with 10MW from photo voltaic; 15MW from geothermal; and 2MW from wind. > 20% vitality effectivity positive aspects in electrical energy manufacturing by 2025. > 2025 goal yr – 30% absolute emission discount in comparison with base yr of 2010. > 2030 Goal – 40% absolute emission discount in comparison with base yr of 2010. > Vitality – 30% emissions discount in electrical energy manufacturing.
Sector overview
The aquaculture sector in Grenada was initially launched within the Nineties to supply tilapia and contemporary water prawns, nonetheless it was discontinued resulting from restricted land house, an absence of an economic system of scale and lack of ability to compete with conventional seize fisheries[footnote 25]. Mariculture is a said financial progress space, partly to assist diversify the fisheries sector and to offset entry restrictions to some areas on account of marine protected space designations[footnote 26]. The Grenada Sustainable Aquaculture (GSA) initiative is investigating establishing a recirculating system to supply the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as this may not be in direct competitors with fishermen. The undertaking is supported by the Authorities[footnote 27] and is presently on the lookout for funding. There’s additionally a growing undertaking to determine Bluefin tuna rearing along side Japan[footnote 28]. There are a selection of constraints to growing the sector: > Terrestrial websites – entry to acceptable coastal websites (coastal land is a worthwhile improvement useful resource for housing and tourism) and / or inland websites near water; > Marine websites – appropriate sheltered coastal bays are fascinating for different coastal improvement pursuits, notably tourism; > Markets – plentiful provide of comparatively low cost fish (jacks/scads) and better worth fish (tuna) restrict demand for farmed species, which are usually dearer till the sector is properly established. Alternatives for sustainable aquaculture improvement, notably tilapia, freshwater prawns and seamoss must be explored in additional element.
Financial contribution
Aquaculture has not but developed as a big exercise in Grenada and could be classed as experimental / developmental. It doesn’t presently contribute considerably to the economic system or jobs.
Cross-cutting points
Local weather change impacts to coastal land and appropriate bays could have an effect on the event of the sector. Water high quality could change into a difficulty for each the species cultured and human well being. Gender equality – There are a number of gender features within the aquaculture sector that want consideration to enhance alternatives for girls to have interaction within the economic system.
The financial worth of the seek for biopharmaceuticals can profit the pharmaceutical industries, the host nation and the group who achieve profit from possession of the organic useful resource and might count on sufficient compensation for useful resource use. There’s presently no systematic seek for biopharmaceuticals in Grenada. Though Grenada is a signatory of the Conference on Organic Variety (CBD)[footnote 29] it isn’t a celebration of the Nagoya Protocol on Entry and Profit-sharing such that any profitable biopharmaceutical discoveries in Grenada wouldn’t be required to adjust to the Protocol or profit the nation as a lot as doable. Biopharmaceuticals will not be a precedence for the federal government and doesn’t kind a part of the consideration within the improvement of the Nationwide Ocean Coverage. As such, it isn’t thought of additional and there’s no Motion Plan in part 5.3 for this sector.
Financial contribution
There aren’t any information on the financial contribution or employment of biopharma.

6. 3. Cross Chopping Points

Plenty of points minimize throughout the completely different financial sectors beforehand highlighted and deserve consideration in their very own proper. Individually, they’re important sufficient for SIDS with a small and static inhabitants, a geographically-expansive however constrained useful resource space and extremely risky and altering geomorphology. Nevertheless, their inter-connections enhance their particular person results: in consequence, these interactions should be actively thought of as a part of the suggestions contained inside an MEP.

6.1 3.1.  Regional Organisations within the Caribbean

International locations within the Wider Caribbean Area (WCR) have a powerful custom of working collectively to attain shared targets and this can be a explicit characteristic in relation to ocean governance and administration. The Caribbean Group (CARICOM), is an financial bloc of 14 member international locations that permits for the implementation of widespread approaches and collaboration together with using marine sources. CARICOM has a number of related businesses that cope with problems with relevance to maritime economic system sectors or issues, together with the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), Caribbean Group Local weather Change Centre (CCCCC), Caribbean Tourism Group (CTO) and the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH).

The Organisation of Japanese Caribbean States (OECS) was established by a number of CARICOM states. These international locations share a standard method to coverage areas comparable to commerce, well being, training and the surroundings, together with issues referring to the ocean and its sources. The OECS additionally gives the premise for the supply of the Ideas of Environmental Sustainability underneath the St. George’s Declaration, making it a big driver to attain SDGs within the Japanese Caribbean.

6.2 3.2.  Present State of Marine Planning and Administration in Grenada

The Authorities of Grenada may be very conscious of the necessity for marine planning and administration and has undertaken a number of nationwide initiatives, together with:

Built-in Coastal Zone Administration (ICZM) Coverage
Ridge to Reef (R2R) Initiative
Nationwide Adaptation Plan (NAP)
Marine Protected Areas Programme
Blue Development Strategic Masterplan

Grenada is working in the direction of designating 25% of coastal areas as MPAs; there are presently 4 MPAs.

In 2013, the OECS authorised and adopted the Japanese Caribbean Regional Ocean Coverage (ECROP) to advertise a standard method to ocean governance in all member states and mandated that every member develop a Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP) to help the overarching regional coverage. The ECROP has plenty of priorities and targets, lots of that are synergistic with the SDGs and subsequently of relevance to the maritime / blue economic system. As a part of the OECS, Grenada is totally built-in into the ECROP programme and is actively growing a Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP) inside the ECROP framework and insurance policies:

safe entry to sources – clearly outlined maritime boundaries, monitoring, compliance, surveillance
& enforcement
undertake multiple-use ocean planning and built-in administration
preserve and enhance ecosystem integrity
promote public consciousness, participation, and accountability
promote social and financial improvement
help analysis and capability constructing
construct resilience and handle uncertainty

The NOP will create a framework for built-in planning and administration of the marine house and actions from 2020 to 2035 to ship Grenada’s NOP imaginative and prescient:

Our marine and coastal sources are sustainably managed to maximise the potential of the blue economic system, guarantee resilience to local weather impacts, shield and restore marine ecosystems and nurture our pure and cultural heritage for the advantage of present and future generations.

Grenada’s NOP is predicated on 12 overarching ideas:

Island Techniques Administration (ISM)
Entry and profit sharing
Ecosystem Primarily based Administration (EBM)
Precautionary method
Environmental stewardship
Environmental legal responsibility
Sustainable Growth
Transboundary cooperation
Public and Non-public Participation
Good governance
Use of sound science and finest observe
Gender Fairness and Inclusivity

The Island Techniques Administration (ISM) idea was developed by the OECS and recognises the actual traits of islands; the necessity to take a systemic view throughout land and sea. It’s a multidisciplinary, built-in method utilizing adaptive administration to handle battle in useful resource use and supply insurance policies to manage the impacts of human intervention. It’s intently associated to, and builds on, approaches in ICZM and R2R.

A Nationwide Ocean Governance Committee (NOGC) comprising representatives from related public our bodies shall be established to ship, monitor progress, and be accountable for making certain that actions within the NOP are carried out.

Desk 3 – Ministries, Departments and Our bodies with a job in marine planning and administration

Ministry / Division / Organisation
Function in marine planning / administration
Nationwide Ocean Governance Committee
Inter-ministerial public physique delivering and monitoring progress on the implementation of the Nationwide Ocean Coverage
Ministry of Sports activities, Tradition and the Arts, Fisheries and Co-operatives
Administers and manages offshore and coastal fisheries, and fishing vessel licensing; promotes and manages MPAs and mitigates for coastal dangers
Ministry of Tourism, Civil Aviation, Local weather Resilience and the Atmosphere
Promotes and regulates tourism actions within the marine space. Catastrophe administration and local weather resilience capabilities have just lately transferred to the Ministry of Tourism
Ministry of Finance, Financial Growth, Bodily Growth, Public Utilities and Vitality
Financial planning and coverage
Bodily Planning and Growth Authority
Regulates coastal improvement together with marine buildings
Ministry of Infrastructure Growth, Transport and Implementation
Regulates electrical energy technology and transmission together with offshore vitality technology
Division of Vitality and Sustainable Growth
Promotes petroleum exploration and use of renewable vitality sources together with marine vitality
Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Shopper Affairs
Promotes progress of commerce, marine industries and delivery
Ministry of Carriacou and Petite Martinique Affairs and Native Authorities
Represents pursuits of Carriacou and Petite Martinique together with companies and infrastructure within the coastal and marine areas
Grenada Coast Guard
Worldwide borders maritime surveillance and search and rescue
Grenada Ports Authority
Administers and regulates port operations
Ministry of International Affairs, Worldwide Enterprise and CARICOM Affairs
Technical cooperation, loans and grants, and human capability constructing. The Ministry additionally has oversight of worldwide Treaties and Conventions, together with all multi-lateral environmental Agreements.

6.3 3.3.  Climate occasions and Local weather Change

Grenada is characterised by mountainous terrain with in depth corals and mangroves. It has a moist, tropical local weather with roughly 3% of its land space at sea stage, together with the principle cities and key socio-economic services. Grenada is usually thought of to be under the Caribbean hurricane belt, however it’s weak to tropical storms, occasional hurricanes and storm surges. The hurricane season is from June to November.

Coral reefs are an vital supply of earnings for Grenada offering tourism, recreation and fishing alternatives. They’re additionally important for safeguarding the island in opposition to opposed climate occasions comparable to storms and hurricanes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Change (IPCC) has concluded that coral ecosystems are among the many most weak to local weather change as they’re topic to rising ocean floor temperatures, resulting in coral bleaching and acidification of marine waters.

There are two distinct rainfall patterns – the dry season sometimes runs from January to Could and the wet season from June to December. Carriacou and Petite Martinique usually expertise decrease ranges of rainfall and might endure extreme drought circumstances. Floods are largely related to storm surges in low coastal areas, which additionally trigger erosion. Landslides are a danger throughout the wet season within the mountain areas. The Coastal Vulnerability and Danger Evaluation Mission for Grenada reveals that the nation is extremely weak to sea stage rise, and that there

is potential for inundation of land and flooding[footnote 30], which might considerably have an effect on industrial actions, human settlements and infrastructure (airport, ports, tourism), in addition to inflicting important erosion, and potential disappearance of seashores. The direct results of sea stage rise on agriculture are much less extreme, though some areas are already experiencing saline intrusion to coastal aquifers.

Adjustments in precipitation and temperature brought on by local weather change elevate issues for water availability, which might impression farmers, particularly these rising vegatables and fruits, whereas extra erratic rainfall patterns might result in intervals of drought and / or heavy rains eroding soil, damaging crops and growing agricultural runoff.

Grenada submitted its first Nationwide Communications (NC1) together with its greenhouse fuel stock to the United Nations Framework Conference on Local weather Change (UNFCCC) in 2000. The nation signed and ratified the Paris Settlement and submitted its first Nationally Decided Contribution (NDC) in 2016. In 2020, Grenada submitted its second NDC to the UNFCCC as affirmation of the bold 2030 NDC goal of a 40% discount in GHG emissions under 2010 ranges (attaining this goal is conditional on exterior funding). Grenada’s NDC highlights the nation’s dedication in the direction of a low carbon and local weather resilient improvement pathway.

3.3.1.  Alternatives and plans for local weather motion

Grenada has a Nationwide Adaptation Plan (NAP) which is the central supply mechanism for local weather resilience andadaptation. It’s a technique of figuring out medium and long-term adaptation wants and growing and implementing methods and programmes to handle these wants.


2030 goal – 40% absolute emission discount in comparison with base yr of 2010; 2025 goal yr – 30% absolute emission discount in comparison with base yr of 2010

demand-side Effectivity – Emissions reductions within the constructing sector by retrofitting (20%) and vitality effectivity constructing codes (30%); and 20% emissions discount within the resort sector

transport (land and marine) – 20% emissions discount within the transport sector by 2025. Gasoline and diesel taxes; introduction of biofuel blends; and fuel-efficient requirements for autos

waste – Development of a managed (or capped) landfill to compact and canopy waste and gather methane fuel generated for electrical energy manufacturing; employment of waste discount, sorting and recycling actions

forestry – nationwide obligation to guard 17% of its terrestrial space as a part of the Aichi Goal and 20% underneath the Caribbean Problem initiative


Coastal zone administration:

undertake an in depth mapping of the coastal options to supply a definition of the coast
re-established its seaside monitoring program underneath new phrases of reference and stronger institutional backing
undertake a number of group ecosystem primarily based adaptation actions together with coral restoration, mangrove rehabilitation, all with different livelihood implications
Water Useful resource Administration – full a vulnerability evaluation and develop a nationwide adaptation plan and motion plan for the water sector, mapping and water high quality testing of casual water sources
water conservation and re-use – rainwater harvesting in some distant communities to enhance water assortment and storage

Cross-cutting features:

enhancing the institutional framework on local weather change – set up an built-in and coordinated method to addressing local weather change to assist minimise capability gaps within the system whereas making certain coherence and cohesion on the native and nationwide stage
constructing the resilience of communities – interact group teams and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) within the participation of actions geared at constructing local weather resilience

6.4 3.4.  Ecosystem Companies

Marine and coastal environments, and their supporting ecosystems, help a various vary of sea life that’s vital for international biodiversity and play a big position in Grenada’s economic system and lifestyle. Sustaining the well being and biodiversity of marine ecosystems in Grenada is key for the companies that they presently present, for supporting cultural and social well-being and for future sustainable improvement alternatives.

Present ecosystem companies embody subsistence meals provision from fisheries and aquaculture, shore stabilisation and coastal safety supplied by mangroves and carbon sequestration from seagrass and tidal marshes. The safety and preservation of coral reefs is of essential significance, each from an ecological perspective and for his or her position in supporting a vacationer business that relies upon largely on wholesome marine and coastal ecosystems.

Degradation of marine ecosystems presents a significant risk to livelihoods, well being and well-being. Within the marine space, these come from the consequences of local weather change, together with ocean acidification and coral bleaching, bodily injury from more and more intense hurricanes and the expansion of maritime actions and land-based air pollution.

3.4.1.  Financial contribution

Coastal and marine ecosystems present a wide range of ecological capabilities that straight and not directly translate to financial companies and worth to people. Nevertheless, the worth of ecosystem companies is commonly tough to quantify as it isn’t simply captured in ‘conventional’ financial stability sheets. It is probably not instantly seen in markets, enterprise transactions or nationwide financial accounts and it might solely be perceived when companies are diminished or misplaced (MACBIO, 2015)[footnote 31]. The significance of pure property could be disregarded if they’re under-valued and, subsequently, they could change into overused or depleted. In flip, this may occasionally have actual and important, if unintended, knock-on results to financial sectors.

Grenada has carried out plenty of protected space ecosystem valuation workout routines. There’s presently an initiative between the Atmosphere Division and the Caribbean Pure Sources Institute (CANARI) to hold out a country-wide Nationwide Ecosystem Evaluation of Grenada for 2019 – 2023 (CANARI, 2020)[footnote 32]. The Nationwide Sustainable Growth Plan (NSDP) additionally considers ecosystem companies for the blue economic system, with stakeholders expressing issues about expertise gaps which pose challenges in accessing new applied sciences.

6.5 3.5.  Coastal and Catastrophe Danger Administration

The Nationwide Catastrophe Administration Company (NDMA) is the physique chargeable for the general administration of disasters and emergency conditions in Grenada.

3.5.1.  Pure Hazards

Historic information point out that Grenada has been adversely affected by a variety of pure hazards comparable to droughts, floods, wind, storm surges, tropical cyclones, landslides and seismic hazards (earthquakes and tsunamis).

There’s the potential for critical opposed impacts to coastal communities and infrastructure from flooding, sea-level rise and inundation, particularly throughout storm surges. Severe disruption of social and financial life may very well be anticipated to happen on account of pure hazards. Coastal erosion from SLR and excessive occasions might disrupt coastal villages comparable to Gouyave, Grand Mal, Duquesne, Soubise and Marquis. Roads by these communities and different areas comparable to Carriacou are at or under sea stage in some instances. These roads might expertise flooding and change into impassable throughout excessive tides and expertise extreme injury throughout storm surges. Maurice Bishop Airport is taken into account essentially the most in danger CARICOM airport with regard to SLR[footnote 33].

There’s a need to extend improvement within the coastal zone to help authorities coverage targets related to sustainable tourism. An space of essential significance is the specter of seaside erosion to nearly all of the prevailing tourism services in areas positioned close to the shoreline (e.g. Grand Anse and Carenage), the place important land and seaside losses are predicted resulting from sea stage rise (SLR)[footnote 34]:

Grand Anse: land loss ~ 206,000m2 and seaside lack of over 54,509m2. Resorts impacted on this area embody the Allamanda Seaside Resort, Coyaba Seaside Resort, Spice Island Resort and Flamboyant Resort (presently being renovated underneath a brand new title)

Carenage (harbour within the capital): land lack of nearly 19,000m2. There aren’t any seashores on this space

Marquis: land lack of over 9,000m2 and seaside lack of over 4,000m2

Soubise: land lack of over 13,700m2 and seaside lack of over 3,000m2

The Bodily Planning Unit (PPU) is the authority chargeable for planning and improvement management and the safety of the pure and cultural heritage. Though its mandate contains ahead planning, nearly all of its operations are centered on improvement management. As there is no such thing as a updated Nationwide Bodily Growth Plan, the PPU is working with none planning steering or land zoning improvement orders in place. The PPU manages this course of by consulting extensively inside authorities to make sure the nationwide coverage path is taken ahead.

Grenada and St. Lucia have applied an insurance coverage scheme particularly designed to help the fishing business within the occasion of utmost climate occasions; Caribbean Oceans and Aquaculture Sustainability Facility (COAST) insurance coverage, with help from the CME Programme, World Financial institution and Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM). The insurance coverage has been developed by the Caribbean Disaster Danger Insurance coverage Facility Segregated Portfolio Firm (CCRIF SPC). The insurance coverage encourages and incentivises the sustainable administration of fisheries, coverage reforms and climate-smart fisheries and provides cowl for fishers and associated companies (e.g. distributors) within the occasion of utmost climate occasions comparable to tropical storms and hurricanes. The federal government is encouraging all vessels to be insured and can solely present licences if the fisher has insurance coverage. Moreover, the Grenada Growth Financial institution will solely present vessel loans if the fisher is licensed and insured.

3.5.2.  Man-made Hazards

Along with pure hazards there are a variety of artificial hazards comparable to fires, air pollution, poisonous spills and accidents, together with forest fires and oil spill occasions. The impression of an oil spill may very well be probably devastating to Grenada’s pure sources by way of destruction of seashores, coral reefs and marine life.

6.6 3.6. Gender equality

The UN SDG 5 goals to attain gender equality and empower all girls and ladies. There are 9 targets, with not less than one indicator every, that purpose to attain the overarching objective. Maritime industries are historically male-dominated areas, notably in bedrock sectors of fishing, ports / delivery, marine aggregates. Industrial and offshore fisheries stay a male-dominated sector worldwide. Girls’s roles and actions in these bedrock sectors are usually in supporting onshore roles, comparable to fish processing, meals preparation and repair sector roles.

The UN has highlighted the gender equality points across the COVID-19 pandemic, noting that almost all of caregivers, at dwelling, in communities and in well being care, are girls. Though these most affected by COVID-19 are reportedly males, the aged, and other people with continual illnesses and weak immune programs, girls and ladies are disproportionately impacted by each the illness and the general public well being measures to include it. Girls are at elevated danger of an infection resulting from their caregiving position; and lack of livelihood, resulting from their jobs tending to be in service sectors which have been closed; or partly time or casual work.

Girls’s position in subsistence nearshore / coastal fishing is commonly unpaid and, subsequently, undervalued in financial information. A transfer in the direction of valuing ecosystem companies and the financial contribution that ecosystems make in supporting the economic system will assist to spotlight the worth of the roles of ladies to the economic system. The stewardship and administration of ecosystem companies and the creation of recent small scale enterprise alternatives may also present extra alternatives for girls and extra rural or distant island communities, comparable to by small scale aquaculture.

Tourism is one maritime economic system sector that gives a wider vary of alternatives for girls to take an lively half within the economic system. The chance to diversify and develop the tourism providing creates the chance for girls and rural / distant communities to have interaction within the economic system. The event of this Maritime Economic system Plan has included consideration of how gender equality presently impacts the maritime economic system sectors as a part of the multicriteria evaluation carried out (see part 4.1).

7. 4. Evaluation and Plan Growth

This Plan has been produced on account of a number of months of desk work mixed with a consultative mission to Grenada, throughout which intensive discussions had been scheduled with a variety of presidency, NGO, and personal sector stakeholders. It’s subsequently very a lot a strategic overview of Grenada’s maritime financial potential. Typically such swift approaches and taking a ‘helicopter view’ is usually a extremely useful mechanism for succinctly reducing by element and prioritising wants. The Maritime Economic system Plan was topic to evaluate, suggestions and replace throughout 2020 / 2021, with the Ministry of Sports activities, Tradition and the Arts, Fisheries & Co-operatives performing as the focus for engagement.

This doc is offered as a foundation for additional dialogue and to help Grenada alongside the tough however essential pathway in the direction of the realisation of a blue economic system.

The Plan was topic to wide-ranging scrutiny and session and following related revisions, it’s anticipated that it’ll in the end help Grenada within the implementation of its Nationwide Ocean Coverage.

7.1 4.1.  Strategies

The next strategies had been developed and utilized to help session and discussions with stakeholders and the evaluation of knowledge:

to assist collect data throughout nation visits and search the views and opinions of stakeholders to tell the event of the Maritime Economic system Plan, a sequence of structured questions was developed. Questions had been grouped by sector (e.g. fisheries) or theme / challenge that’s widespread to many SIDS or that has the potential to have an effect on the maritime economic system (e.g. catastrophe danger, infrastructure and engineering)

the place acceptable, stakeholders had been aided within the means of prioritising maritime sector points with the assistance of a Card Sorting train (see Determine 4). ‘Card sorting’ prioritisation of maritime economic system sectors and discussions of priorities had been held with stakeholders, both individually, in teams, or in workshops. Discussions focussed on 4 ‘key drivers’ for the nation’s maritime economic system, their relative significance and any potential tensions between the important thing drivers, to grasp the over-arching problems with significance affecting all maritime economic system sectors. Determine 4 overleaf presents the important thing drivers

data collected by the structured interview questions; desktop examine of revealed and gray literature and studies and information supplied by the departments and ministries contacted was topic to a bespoke multicriteria evaluation developed to assist inform the maritime economic system plan course of. The multicriteria evaluation was termed a GESTER evaluation (see Desk 4).

conventional and rising maritime economic system sectors had been topic to the GESTER of the present state of affairs or standing of the sector, contemplating each constructive and damaging features of the sector. The evaluation served to show the method to fundamental environmental and social screening

The factors in opposition to which every sector was thought of are proven in Desk 4. Card sorting (Determine 4) supplied a sequence of lenses for analyzing completely different sectors. The Maritime Economic system Plan was then drafted following this evaluation.

PHOTO: Coastal highway in Grenada

Desk 4 – Multicriteria (GESTER) evaluation

What is taken into account / included?

Regulation, administration, monitoring, enforcement, sources (human and expertise)
Impacts / dangers to the surroundings from the sector, dependency on environmental high quality / dangers from different sector impacts to the surroundings
Think about gender, rural and city, instructional elements, well being and security, group points, expertise and coaching of staff in the present day, entry to coaching / training for future workforce, availability of workforce domestically, lack of workforce abroad, inflow of staff from abroad
Think about impacts of recent expertise on the sector, expertise necessities for the sector, if low tech can obtain related outcomes
Economic system
The results on the economic system, or financial results on this sector – native and international elements, resilience to financial change
Resilience & Danger
To / from pure hazards (earthquake, tsunami, excessive climate) and local weather change (enhance in excessive climate, sea stage rise, ocean acidification, sea temperature rise), preparedness and response to occasions, integration throughout coverage / authorities

Determine 4 – Card sorting key drivers

Constructing a vibrant and productive maritime / blue economic system could also be assisted by concerted focus upon key maritime financial sectors. These sectors could then be aligned with a sequence of over-arching Ideas that after adhered to will help a rustic to observe a transparent and inclusive pathway to sustainable maritime financial progress (see Determine 5).

The United Nations has adopted ocean improvement as a part of its Sustainable Growth Targets (SDGs). SDG 14 goals to “Preserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine sources for sustainable improvement.” The blue economic system interlinks with nearly all of the SDGs, together with SDG5, SDG11, SDG8, SDG7 and others. Aquatic and marine sources play a vital position in supporting maritime financial sectors. Progress in the direction of a blue economic system may help obtain a variety of SDGs. Determine 6 illustrates a few of the linkages between blue economic system improvement and the 17 SDGs[footnote 35].

Determine 5 – Ideas of a sustainable Blue Economic system[footnote 36]

Determine 6 – The Blue Economic system and attaining SDGs

8. 5. Key messages, priorities and actions

This part of the plan units out the important thing messages and priorities for the maritime economic system of Grenada. It highlights the overarching messages and key drivers for the nation and for every of the maritime economic system sectors, taking account of the present financial actions, alternatives and dangers and session with stakeholders.

The significance of key present and growing insurance policies and plans in Grenada, notably the NOP, NAP and ICZM plan is recognised. The place the priorities, actions and suggestions on this MEP assist to attain or hyperlink to insurance policies within the NOP, the related NOP targets are recognized.

8.1 5.1.  Key messages and Key drivers for Grenada’s Maritime Economic system

The overarching key points driving Grenada’s maritime economic system are:

marine tourism is taking part in an growing position within the prosperity of Grenada and must be managed in a sustainable manner to make sure its viability in the long run. Particularly, the impacts of yachting and cruise tourism should be totally understood

there may be the potential for brand new maritime actions so as to add to the financial prosperity of Grenada. The NOP is designed to recognise the potential for these new actions. For instance, potential oil and fuel extraction, mariculture and marine renewables all should be ruled by insurance policies that guarantee they’re carried out in an environmentally sustainable manner, ought to they be actions that Grenada needs to strategically pursue

the growing NOP will act as a planning coverage steering doc to assist implement actions and suggestions on this MEP and different insurance policies, such because the cabinet-endorsed ICZM Coverage

there is no such thing as a Nationwide Maritime Transport Coverage. This shall be wanted to satisfy Worldwide Maritime Organisation (IMO) necessities round security at sea, air pollution response and flag, coastal and port state measures and can assist to handle a few of the water high quality / port waste points within the nation

efforts to enhance public consciousness of marine and coastal security (together with boating, swimming and many others.) are vital to handle a perceived cultural worry of the ocean, which is limiting the realisation of the alternatives of a blue economic system

8.2 5.2.  Priorities

The priorities listed here are cross-sectoral and determine the place actions are required to maneuver in the direction of a sustainable blue economic system whereas additionally implementing the Grenada Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP), ship the NOP Imaginative and prescient and realise the overarching ECROP polices, to which Grenada is signed up. These priorities and themes are picked up in lots of the actions recognized for maritime economic system sectors in part 5.3.

Precedence 1 – Collaboration

To create the required platform for future collaboration amongst all sectors in Grenada, there’s a have to coordinate exercise inside a formally established Nationwide Ocean Governance Committee (NOGC) and enhance linkages between present insurance policies and plans of relevance to Grenada’s marine house. It is a important step within the implementation of the ECROP in Grenada and embedding the idea of the blue economic system throughout authorities. Vital preliminary actions for the NOGC are:

agree phrases of reference and develop an operations steering guide for the NOGC by related our bodies

formalise the annual interim evaluate of the Grenada NOP. Determine clear actions for key organisations in Grenada to supply data on regional and worldwide commitments and sectoral analyses. Produce an annual Ocean Standing Progress Report that can be utilized to compile a 5 yearly Ocean Standing Report

evaluate the suggestions and actions set out on this MEP to make sure Grenada particular steering is ready and disseminated for inter-departmental mainstreaming into sectoral work plans. Steerage must be articulated in a manner that it’s understood and in a position to be integrated into authorities departmental enterprise with minimal impression

oversee and information the continuing manufacturing of Marine Spatial Plans and Coastal Grasp Plans for Grenada to help the implementation of the NOP and actions on this MEP that the NOGC prioritises

Moreover, the next actions are designed to enhance cross-departmental understanding in Grenada and facilitate collaboration, by making certain a standard understanding and method to marine administration:

make sure that a ridge to reef (Islands Techniques Administration) method is adopted within the improvement of the NOP, Marine Spatial Plans, Coastal Grasp Plans and the supply of MEP actions recognized as precedence for Grenada

perform a evaluate of the present regulatory system of marine environmental administration and necessities of the Nationwide Environmental Coverage and Administration Technique (NEMS), figuring out gaps and actions to take to enhance laws. This can assist present the premise for the coordinating mechanism with ICZM to supply a hyperlink between land and marine planning

undertake a pure capital analysis of Grenada’s marine and coastal surroundings to grasp the worth of marine ecosystem companies total to tell resolution making and marine administration. The findings must be included within the Ocean Standing Reviews

set up a clearly communicated, co-ordinating mechanism for the implementation of the MEP

Precedence 2 – Capability

Human capability and expertise are key challenges to the implementation of the MEP and mainstreaming the ideas of the blue economic system and marine spatial administration throughout all departments and businesses in Grenada. Outdoors of presidency, there’s a have to deal with rising expertise for brand new jobs within the maritime economic system, St. George’s College has a key position to play on this. An pressing evaluate of Grenada’s institutional capability wants is required within the following areas:

fisheries: fishing is vital for each native meals safety and earnings technology in Grenada. Fisheries administration is challenged by restricted human sources and operational capability for analysis, monitoring, compliance and enforcement. Understanding the capability challenges will inform the event of a revised Fisheries Coverage and motion plan

marine protected areas: evaluate present MPA boundaries and administration in Grenada. This can inform the administration programs and capability necessities wanted for present MPAs, the necessity to replace them, to tell the designation of any new MPAs and ongoing administration necessities for all new and future MPAs in Grenada.

marine analysis: there is no such thing as a strategic overview of marine analysis necessities for Grenada, or an understanding of the capability, functionality and partnerships out there to tell, undertake and disseminate marine analysis. Analysis and the dissemination of findings (linking to Precedence 4 – Communication) is vital to tell and develop sustainable marine administration and Grenada’s maritime economic system sectors

land and water administration and use planning: the hyperlink between land use administration and inland water sources and flood administration to coastal water high quality and ecosystems companies is recognised within the Island Techniques Administration method, nonetheless extra sources are wanted to implement this virtually together with by the Land Coverage and Built-in Useful resource Water Administration Plan (within the means of gaining Cupboard approval)

Precedence 3: Dedication

Future funding to sort out marine points shall be depending on Grenada with the ability to exhibit, by this MEP and the Grenada NOP, that funding will result in a useful legacy for residents and the marine surroundings. It’s of significance, subsequently, that governmental dedication ensures that the implementation of the MEP is totally costed, suitably aligned to authorities sectoral budgets and endorsed by all Grenada NOGC members (see Precedence 1 – collaboration). As well as, finance and co-financing mechanisms have to be clearly recognized and disbursement modalities secured for related MEP supply.

Precedence 4: Communication

Growing public consciousness, understanding and appreciation of the significance of the ocean, the Grenada NOP and the MEP by training and outreach is a vital short-term motion. This could embrace the creation of a course of for lively public participation in planning, coverage and resolution making which is prone to embody the necessity for a public consciousness, training and outreach technique to be developed and applied. This builds on cross-departmental dissemination and consciousness elevating (see Precedence 1 – collaboration) and extends to companies, communities and most people throughout Grenada. Growing and enhancing expertise and coaching for jobs is vital – each educational and vocational coaching, notably if new areas are to be made essentially the most of e.g. mariculture, growth of tourism. St. George’s College has a job to play right here.

8.3 5.3.  Motion Plans

Actions, main actors and desired outcomes are offered for every maritime economic system sector within the following pages. Suggestions and actions have been drafted to be related and relevant to each men and women, and to all of Grenada’s communities. Key messages and suggestions that would present alternatives for girls are highlighted. Every sector is given a prioritisation for motion primarily based on the categorisation under.

Priorities have been categorised as follows:

sq.: this work is pressing. It’s essential to each GDP and /or Grenada’s means to adapt to local weather change
circle: this work is new / wants consideration. Sustainably growing it additional now would assist to construct a future sustainable maritime economic system ‘sport changer’ for Grenada
triangle: this work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s blue economic system. Consideration to implementation plan ideas will additional strengthen the sector

5.3.1.  Coastal Growth

Standing – Bedrock (Established)

SUGGESTED PRIORITY: This work is pressing. It’s essential to each GDP and /or the power to adapt to local weather change

Human capability and expertise are a constraint within the administration and planning for sustainable coastal improvement. There’s a want for higher coordination between resolution making our bodies.

Laws and planning controls are a constraint to planning and managing improvement sustainably and don’t facilitate cross-departmental coordination; there may be presently no overarching Atmosphere Act, EIA Rules are in draft and there’s no updated Nationwide Bodily Growth Plan in place.

The Division of Atmosphere’s lack of legislative energy implies that they depend on influencing, advising and guiding others to make sure environmental compliance by different supply routes. Given the dearth of a legislative framework, environmental coverage paperwork are crucial to the Division of Atmosphere (DoE) to assist direct others in an acceptable method.

MPA designation and administration is the accountability of the Division of Fisheries (DoF). The PPU will not be straight concerned in MPA designation however the presence of MPAs impacts planning coverage and actions for which the PPU is accountable.

The PPU doesn’t have the experience / capability to evaluate coastal / marine purposes or Environmental Affect Assessments (EIAs), though the PPU does seek the advice of different authorities departments on purposes and EIAs for his or her enter into the decision-making course of.

To be able to meet present challenges and realise future alternatives the next concerns must be taken into consideration by resolution makers as regards to future coastal improvement in Grenada:

take into account all related local weather resilience or coastal administration plans or insurance policies when growing any coastal or marine spatial plans

take into account a precautionary and risk-based method, together with using environmental impression assessments to make sure that actions and developments within the coastal zone are local weather resilient and sustainable

make sure that coverage and regulatory supply is built-in between related ICZM coverage and the brand new NOP (2019), contemplating hyperlinks to the Draft Land Coverage and Built-in Water Useful resource Administration Plan for an Island Techniques Administration (ISM) method to assist deal with water sources and flood danger administration in any respect ranges and air pollution management within the nearshore space from each coastal and land-based sources

Nationwide Parks and Protected Areas (NPPAs) on land should be preserved and co-managed with the marine surroundings

coastal entry rights to the water is a big challenge. Clear coverage must be developed to make sure standardisation and transparency concerning entry

make sure that evidence-based resolution making is utilized for coastal developments. This contains making certain a strong Environmental Affect Evaluation (EIA) framework that’s adhered to. It is crucial that an EIA is up to date or a brand new EIA is undertaken for improvement extensions

panorama administration and reversal of land degradation points must be thought of for all coastal improvement schemes

Grenada would profit from introducing a call -making framework to help Fast Evaluation in improvement management

Bettering legislative powers, clear strategic improvement planning and enhancing expertise and capability to manage
and implement planning and improvement is crucial to attain sustainable coastal improvement.

[Grenada Coastal Development]

5.3.2. Transport and Ports

Standing – Bedrock (Established)

Steered precedence: This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s sustainable maritime economic system. Consideration to implementation plan ideas will additional strengthen the sector.

Coordination with different resolution makers is essential for the Grenada Port Authority (GPA) – choices each at a coverage and supply stage that have an effect on port operations or the marine surroundings could be made with out GPA information.

The power to observe, management and reply to human exercise at sea is key to the power to handle and plan marine sources, shield the marine surroundings and implement the rule of regulation. Grenada should make sure that sufficient charts and hydrographic companies can be found in step with nationwide, regional and worldwide commitments. Capability constructing, regional cooperation and coaching, and making certain efficient hydrographic governance are required to grasp what is happening inside Grenada’s marine house. Capability in each employees and gear / vessels are required to answer this data for efficient compliance and enforcement and emergency response.

Key messages:

leisure / yacht and cruise visitors is predicted to extend and is being inspired to develop the tourism sector. The necessities wanted to help this progress sustainably should be thought of strategically, together with:

port / harbour and onshore infrastructure and services to help the expansion e.g. potential new delivery routes, berthing services, lodging, transport, want for elevated cargo / delivery, and many others
boat constructing is vital for maritime commerce and there’s a want to preserve and develop boat constructing tasks
this might want to hyperlink to each services and human sources / coaching
means of present and future port / harbour services to extend resilience to / adapt to local weather change as they’re developed / develop
spatial, social and environmental impacts of predicted will increase and the necessity to handle / mitigate these. This contains each terrestrial and marine points, comparable to navigational security, entry to areas for different actions (e.g. fishing), conservation and administration (e.g. MPAs, reefs, and many others.)

port waste / waste water services are usually not ample to deal with present ranges of visitors – addressing future progress necessities is crucial to stop environmental and human well being impacts
capability constructing for GPA, DoE, DoF and PPU to strategically plan, handle, monitor and implement port / harbour improvement, operation and navigation. This requires employees, coaching and gear

Water high quality / waste administration controls are prone to change into more and more vital because the tourism business grows, all types of marine visitors enhance and extra strain is placed on port / harbour / marine services.

[Grenada Shipping and ports]

5.3.3.  Fisheries

Standing – Bedrock (Established)

Steered precedence: This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s sustainable maritime economic system. Consideration to implementation plan ideas will additional strengthen the sector.

The Nationwide Fisheries Coverage stays in draft, and is centred on 5 themes:

1: Enhancing the standing and functionality of fishers

2: Sustainable stewardship & conservation of aquatic sources

3: Realising the event potential inherent inside the fisheries sector

4: Sustaining the sector’s position in sustaining livelihoods of the poor

5: Producing a constructive interplay with Grenada’s wider financial group

Key messages:

fisheries administration, inventory evaluation, administration plans, monitoring and enforcement capability is required to help present fisheries, MPAs and leisure fishing; and to make sure the event of recent markets and tourism fishing is sustainable. Science-based administration plans are required and the draft Nationwide Fisheries Coverage requires updating and finalising

enhance collaboration with neighbouring island states in relation to their involvement in fisheries and the trans-boundary nature of fish shares – actively interact by CARICOM’s Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) and the Caribbean Widespread Fisheries Coverage

MPA administration helps each fisheries and tourism. The designation and administration of MPAs must help the co-existence of each sectors. Cross-government engagement and cooperation is required. Entry to vital conventional fish sources / for meals supply must be supported, the place fishing practices are in step with administration goals. Tourism improvement / leisure craft use of vital fishing areas mustn’t impression on habitat or fish shares. EIA, water high quality administration, non-destructive mooring must be inspired and enforced. Administration / enforcement capability is required throughout authorities

the potential social, environmental and financial impacts of different actions and improvement on fishing and fisheries (e.g. spawning, nursery grounds) should be thought of (e.g. tourism, harbour, coastal improvement)

sport / leisure fishing administration and enforcement will not be on a par with industrial fisheries. As tourism grows this may occasionally impression key shares. Leisure fishing vessels are usually not registered in the identical manner as industrial vessels; this wants to enhance with a view to handle / implement this sector appropriately

help for the event of fisheries merchandise and markets, together with oceanic pelagic species and native inshore species. Coaching for longline and pelagic fishermen is required

coaching and improvement for fishers to enhance security, catch high quality and non-destructive fishing strategies – security at sea, enterprise and monetary administration, co-management with regulators, and many others

Sargassum administration is a cross-cutting challenge affecting fisheries, tourism and ports / harbours – collaboration is required throughout authorities and sector members to handle this, together with analysis into administration methods and / or makes use of for Sargassum

[Grenada Fisheries]

5.3.4.  Aquaculture

Standing – Rising (Not Established)

Steered precedence: This work is new / wants consideration. Sustainably growing it additional now would assist to construct a future sustainable maritime economic system ‘sport changer’’ for Grenada.

The federal government is supportive of a rise in aquaculture and mariculture. There’s a recognition that this must be finished in a manner that gives diversification for the fishing business however doesn’t compete straight with fishers.

Key messages:

alternatives for aquaculture improvement (tilapia, freshwater prawns and seamoss) as an alternative choice to seize fisheries must be assessed (through extra detailed feasibility research) and as an avenue for agricultural diversification
aquaculture improvement – onshore and in coastal areas – is constrained by house and competitors with different sectors. Collaboration is required throughout authorities to think about strategic areas for all alternatives and the potential for co-location of actions
gender associated features within the aquaculture sector require additional consideration

[Grenada Aquaculture and Mariculture]

5.3.5.  Tourism

Sector Standing – Bedrock (Established)

Steered precedence: This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s sustainable maritime economic system. Consideration to implementation plan ideas will additional strengthen the sector.

Tourism actions are the main contributor of earnings for the Grenadian economic system and are central to coastal communities, supporting their high quality of life, with many native companies counting on the marine surroundings for his or her livelihoods.

Tourism is closely reliant on the marine surroundings by way of cruise ship tourism, seaside aspect motels, scuba diving, leisure bathing, yachting and aggressive open-water swimming. The standard and standing of the marine surroundings subsequently has a big impression on the worth of this sector, relying on how vacationers understand the standard of the marine surroundings and the expertise it provides, relative to different international locations.

Key messages:

tourism improvement have to be sustainable. There’s appreciable potential for progress (from rising markets in China, Japan) and for progress to learn different sectors within the provide chain (agriculture, fishing, development, and many others.)

sustaining a top quality coastal and marine surroundings underpins the tourism sector. The federal government recognises the dangers to the surroundings from tourism and to tourism from environmental degradation. Tourism developments mustn’t adversely have an effect on the surroundings or ecosystem companies (pure coastal safety from reefs, water high quality, fish shares, and many others.). A strong EIA, planning, constructing code and enforcement system is vital, with capability for the PPU to ship / implement

water high quality poses a possible danger to sustainable tourism improvement – dangers to environmental and human well being. Water high quality monitoring and enhancements are required to satisfy regional / worldwide requirements for leisure water high quality and to cut back the danger to ecosystems and meals fisheries. By 2025, there’s a have to considerably scale back marine air pollution of all types, together with land-based actions comparable to marine particles and nutrient air pollution. It is crucial that administration of water high quality is taken into account with agriculture and land use administration and the consequences of air pollution on human and ecosystem well being in addition to livelihoods. This hyperlinks to priorities within the Coastal Growth sector for the NOP to hyperlink with the Draft Land Coverage and Built-in Water Useful resource Administration Plan for an island programs administration method and capability necessities to ship this

help is required to strengthen the participation of native communities in enhancing water and sanitation administration and consciousness of the advantages and impacts to coastal livelihoods

a holistic island programs administration (ISM) method is vital to ship tourism coverage goals sustainably
– most infrastructure and coastal entry is land-based however requires marine spatial planning to help entry (cruise, leisure) and tourism actions (seashores, yachting). The coast is the gateway to the inside of the islands, which provides alternatives for the diversification of tourism actions away from primarily coastal / seaside / marine primarily based actions. ISM manages the interactions of tourism with different actions requiring entry to shared areas (delivery, fishing) and for supporting ecosystem companies (water high quality, fishing, coastal safety, seashores)

pure capital valuation of marine tourism ecosystems and interactive Local weather Sensible public consciousness actions will help ISM and sustainable tourism improvement

consideration and administration of the carrying capability of the marine, coastal and terrestrial environments in planning and managing the demand for brand new companies or actions and predicted will increase in customer numbers is required

urge for food for agro-tourism is excessive in Grenada and might play a job in regional and native tourism. Hyperlinks between climbing, agro-tourism and ecosystem companies must be explored. (It is a terrestrially pushed coverage however hyperlinks to insurance policies to develop / diversify coastal tourism sustainably)

Sustainable tourism and recreation can solely thrive with a well-managed, wholesome and secure marine surroundings.

[Grenada Tourism]

[Sandy beach in Grenada]

5.3.6.  Vitality (together with Renewable Vitality)

Bedrock (Established) – diesel import / Rising (Not Established) – renewables

Steered precedence: this work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s sustainable maritime economic system. Consideration to implementation plan ideas will additional strengthen the sector.

On a world scale Offshore Renewable Vitality (ORE) is attracting nice expertise and undertaking improvement curiosity. SIDS could make nice instances for piloting new applied sciences or showcasing new technological options, attracting buyers and sponsors.

Grenada has potential entry to geothermal vitality, which isn’t out there to many different Caribbean international locations.

Key messages:

the federal government is dedicated to renewables and lowering carbon emissions. There are particular targets for enhancing effectivity in demand and manufacturing and for growing renewables contribution to the vitality technology combine
exploration has recognized a pure fuel useful resource to the south of Grenada. Whereas the federal government is eager to grasp the extent of the useful resource out there, an acceptable regulatory framework have to be in place to permit full consideration of the environmental, social and financial advantages of any fuel extraction actions earlier than it’s authorised. All related authorities departments with accountability for assessing, allowing and monitoring these actions have to be appropriately staffed and skilled to cope with the particular technical points related to fuel extraction and should work collectively to make sure joined up administration – Ministry of Finance, Planning, Financial Growth & Bodily Growth, PPU, DoE, and many others
offshore renewables are of much less precedence than onshore renewables. Onshore renewables are less expensive, with appreciable potential. At a nationwide stage, the precedence must be focussed on enhancing vitality effectivity and low carbon vitality technology
cautious evaluation shall be required for web site choice (location) and environmental impression of renewable vitality improvement
there may be an pressing requirement to replace the Nationwide Vitality Coverage
the transition in the direction of using renewable vitality requires multilateral funding help
this can be a terrestrially pushed precedence space however it’s going to help the maritime economic system

There are alternatives for marine renewables, however the focus of low carbon, low value vitality technology must be a terrestrial-driven coverage precedence.

[Grenada Energy]

5.3.7.  Ecosystem companies

Standing – Rising (Not Established)

Steered precedence: this work is new / wants consideration. Sustainably growing it additional now would assist to construct a future sustainable maritime economic system ‘sport changer’’ for Grenada.

Whereas ecosystem companies are ubiquitous and help each bedrock and rising maritime economic system sectors, their integration into resolution making and makes an attempt to quantify their worth, are usually not but mainstreamed. They’re subsequently described as ‘rising’.

Key messages:

ecosystem companies underpin the tourism business, which is basically vital to the economic system of Grenada. The sector additionally places strain on these ecosystem companies from actions comparable to coastal improvement, water use, waste / waste water disposal, unintended / deliberate injury
pure capital valuation is required to grasp the worth of ecosystem items and companies and use this data to tell decision-making
make sure that any coastal or marine spatial planning course of aligns with present mechanisms by contemplating areas and options of significance for nature conservation and wider biodiversity in growing insurance policies and areas for different marine actions, and in allowing new improvement
ISM is vital to help the combination of ecosystem companies and pure capital valuation into the choice making course of, making certain that each one sectors are given ample consideration

The worth of ecosystem companies must be higher understood and integrated into decision-making.

[Grenada ecosystem services]

The desk under summarises the really helpful actions and outcomes for all maritime economic system sectors in Grenada. Some extra clarification and clarification of the really helpful actions are given under, which expands on the abstract textual content within the figures in sections 5.3.1 – 5.3.7.

Coastal improvement Bedrock (Established)
This works is pressing. It’s essential to each GDP and the power to adapt to local weather change
> Handle the danger of coastal hazards by local weather resilient insurance policies, plans and administration of the coast within the Nationwide Adaptation Plan or ICZM plan. This might embody the manufacturing of strategic stage Shoreline Administration Plans to determine and prioritise coastal erosion and danger administration tasks. Coastal Zone Administration Act improvement and implementation by an up to date ICZM plan and resourced Coastal Process Drive. > Develop and implement nationwide programs of coastal and marine spatial planning to enhance planning and management of coastal improvement e.g. by an built-in island improvement plan for every island that takes account of all of the wants of developments – utilities, transport connections (terrestrial and marine), and hyperlinks to the local weather danger and resilience points. Growth management that’s linked to EIA processes. Consciousness elevating and coaching for EIA and enforcement for moth improvement management and EIA. > Maximise the advantages of restoring and conserving coastal ecosystems to extend the resilience of communities and key property utilizing Ecosystem-Primarily based Adaptation. Ecosystem companies valuation course of. Hyperlink the findings to EIA and resolution making processes. Consciousness elevating of the worth of ecosystem companies throughout authorities and with economic system sectors, and integration into resolution making.
> Safety of life, property and ecosystem companies.
Transport and ports Bedrock (Established)
This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s maritime economic system. These actions will assist strengthen the sector
> Preserve efficient maritime situational consciousness, coordinated compliance and enforcement functionality to safe, train and shield rights and jurisdiction over marine areas and sources. Human and technical capability for monitoring, management and enforcement of navigational dangers, delivery / vessel visitors and patrols / coastguard / customs. This contains navigational programs, communications, employees, coaching and vessels, in addition to information administration capabilities. > Guarantee marine air pollution contingency planning, monitoring and response capabilities are in place, in step with related worldwide and regional conventions. Assess the capability of ports / harbours / touchdown websites to handle all ship waste / waste water to required worldwide requirements. Develop motion plans to handle deficiencies and combine into improvement necessities. Water high quality monitoring to make sure compliance. Consciousness elevating of requirements and actions throughout authorities. Coaching and employees to implement actions and monitor progress in the direction of requirements. > Develop a technique to reinforce capacity-building and coaching of marine professionals and seafarers, in step with worldwide requirements and nationwide wants.
> Implementation of particular maritime transport associated insurance policies as outlined inside the Nationwide Ocean Coverage for Grenada.
Fisheries Bedrock (Established)
This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s maritime economic system. These actions will assist strengthen the sector
> Mainstream the sustainable use of marine sources in nationwide insurance policies and planning frameworks, to guarantee long run socio-economic improvement. Guarantee cross-government understanding of the significance of fisheries to livelihoods and the economic system. Hyperlink fisheries well being to environmental well being. Advantages to tourism of native fish provides. > Develop and implement ocean governance coaching programme together with MPA administration, fisheries administration and marine spatial planning. Hyperlinks to coastal improvement and ports sectors. > Formalise maritime boundaries with a view to safe, train and shield their rights and jurisdiction over marine areas and sources. Guarantee boundaries are mapped. Enhance capabilities to implement boundaries and fisheries sources – hyperlinks to port / delivery sector and capability of Coastguard / Customs.
> The federal government stays dedicated to the conservation and sustainable use of fisheries sources for the advantage of the individuals of Grenada.
Aquaculture and mariculture Rising (Not Established)
This work wants consideration. Sustainably growing it additional would assist to construct a maritime economic system ‘sport changer’’
> Implement feasibility assessments to evaluate future path for the aquaculture / mariculture industries. > Replace Nationwide Fisheries Coverage and supporting laws in line with findings from Monitor 1.
> Recognition of the necessity to discover house for all sectors that want coastal land / water for a diversified economic system to learn Grenada.
Tourism Bedrock (Established)
This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s maritime economic system. These actions will assist strengthen the sector
> Develop and implement nationwide programs of coastal and marine spatial planning to enhance planning and management of coastal improvement. Hyperlinks to coastal improvement – see actions above, which minimize throughout sectors. > Handle the danger of local weather change to tourism services by local weather resilient tourism insurance policies, plans and administration of the coastal zone. Determine, promote and help alternatives for growing the well being and wellbeing advantages of the coast to residents, notably by entry to seashores and the coastal zone. Guarantee tourism improvement planning choices are in step with coastal danger assessments and that developments / constructing codes are local weather resilient. Enhance capability and expertise for improvement management, EIA, constructing codes and enforcement of identical to make sure implementation. Hyperlinks to coastal improvement – see actions above, which minimize throughout sectors. > Determine, promote and help alternatives for growing the well being and wellbeing advantages of the coast to residents, notably by entry to seashores and the coastal zone. Developments ought to guarantee secure entry for all to seashores / the coast. Entry must be local weather resilient. Promote coastal / marine actions (swimming, strolling, and many others.) and lift consciousness of the well being advantages of such actions. Guarantee coastal dangers are correctly signed. Develop seaside requirements and apply to public / vacationer seashores.
> Implementation of the up to date Grenada Blue Development Technique as regards to tourism improvement. > A local weather resilient and sustainable tourism sector.
Vitality (incl. Renewable vitality) Bedrock (Established) / Rising (Not Established)
This work is properly established and already crucial to Grenada’s maritime economic system. These actions will assist strengthen the sector
> Continued analysis and improvement and funding (as nationally decided by the Grenada NOP) into renewable vitality applied sciences. That is primarily terrestrial. Resorts / developments must be inspired to make use of native scale renewables, together with SWAC / OTEC. > The Nationwide Vitality Coverage (2011) is up to date to obviously set out the path of vitality coverage.
> Diminished reliability on fossil fuels in Grenada. > Vitality safety for all residents and companies
Ecosystem companies Rising (Not Established)
This work is new / wants consideration. Sustainably growing it additional would assist to construct a maritime economic system ‘sport changer’’
> Handle impacts to coastal / marine ecosystems by ISM, EIA and planning processes influencing resolution making. This hyperlinks to the Coastal Growth, tourism and ports / delivery actions. An ecosystem valuation evaluation would inform resolution making. > Be certain that land and marine primarily based sources of air pollution are successfully monitored and managed in step with nationwide, regional and worldwide commitments. Water high quality monitoring is required. Port waste water services require enchancment. Hyperlinks to ports / delivery for the maritime sector. Particular terrestrial- primarily based actions are required for inland impacts (e.g. land administration). ISM approaches and improvement management that’s resourced and in a position to implement requirements is required. > Develop novel monetary devices to help the supply of environmental targets.
> Coastal and marine ecosystems are protected and improved > Ecosystem Primarily based Administration ideas from the NOP are mainstreamed into nationwide resolution making

9. 6. Implementation

9.1 6.1.  Transition to a Blue Economic system

Making use of blue economic system ideas and strengthening the contribution that the maritime sector makes to nationwide GDP is among the most constructive interventions that SIDS could make in response to local weather change. With its mountainous hinterland and closely populated coastal zone, Grenada is being squeezed by sea stage rise and damaging local weather change impacts. The extra that Grenada is ready to look out to sea for its local weather adaptation options the extra resilient it is going to be. This method will serve to really embrace the imaginative and prescient of a Giant Ocean State.

Determine 7 under reveals an instance of a fascinating blue economic system framework. This shift within the mind-set in regards to the maritime economic system permits a rustic to maneuver away from a linear, compartmentalised, and sectoral method to ocean administration with weak connections, linkages, and synergies between varied scales of intervention (international, worldwide, and nationwide). It facilitates a transfer in the direction of a extra built-in, systemic, dynamic, inclusive, participatory, and ecosystem-based method wherein sectoral boundaries are minimised, at each the members’ and governance stage. This new mind-set recognises that environmental, social, and financial dimensions are intertwined and pursued collectively for all blue maritime economic system actions.

The blue economic system (of which this Maritime Economic system Plan represents a key constructing block) adheres intently to the ideas of Built-in Coastal Zone Administration (ICZM). This centres on the ecosystem method and embeds the ideas of the UNEP ‘Inexperienced Economic system in a Blue World’ report and sustainable improvement. It takes into consideration the three pillars of environmental, financial, and social sustainability, as highlighted within the 2012 Rio+20 final result doc, ‘The Future We Need’, and the UN five-year Motion Agenda 2012–2016.

[Figure 7 – A Desirable Blue Economy Framework]

The blue economic system promotes the conservation of aquatic and marine ecosystems and the sustainable use and administration of sources. It builds on ideas of fairness, low carbon improvement, useful resource effectivity, and social inclusion.

The idea integrates the blue economic system sectors by a socially inclusive course of geared toward sparking a structural transformation, selling built-in improvement, and improved regional cooperation and coordination.

The transformative work required to maneuver in the direction of full software of Blue Economic system Planning ideas in Governmental Technique, Coverage and Implementation is probably a tough however essential step. While Blue Economic system ideas are starting to change into mainstream, notably throughout Island Nations, only a few international locations have begun to arrange nationwide stage Maritime Economic system Plans, and all stay a way off implementation.

As a nation that’s on the local weather change entrance line, but additionally rising by way of total nationwide GDP Grenada is properly positioned to play an exemplary position in blue financial transformation. This MEP lastly explores briefly the essential topic of accessing finance and concludes through a short evaluate of potential state of affairs and distance to journey in embedding the Ideas of a Sustainable Maritime Economic system in societal decision-making. That is offered diagrammatically in part 6.3.

9.2 6.2.  Accessing Ocean and Local weather Finance

A key advantage of strategic planning of any variety is that it will possibly present better readability and energy as a foundation for coordinated bilateral and multilateral funding. This MEP has been drafted with a watch to potential funding streams and it’s anticipated that following session and finalisation this plan could also be utilized by the federal government to help bid prioritisation and coordination.

Grenada already receives exterior funding help and has skilled success on this space. The next devices and forms of fund are prone to show worthwhile at implementation stage:

many improvement companions function within the area and most embody features of the maritime sector of their areas of help. Main improvement companions within the area embody the Caribbean Growth Financial institution (CDB), Inter-American Growth Financial institution (IDB), EU, UN, World Financial institution in addition to nationwide businesses comparable to USAID (USA), GIZ (Germany), JICA (Japan) and the UK (FCDO, CME, CIF)

Grenada has gained entry to local weather and sustainable improvement finance from a variety of worldwide funding sources. The next funds are notably related to the implementation of this Maritime Economic system Plan – Adaptation Fund; World Atmosphere Facility; Inexperienced Local weather Fund, Particular Local weather Change Fund (SCCF), Clear Expertise Fund (CTF)

Grenada, like many Caribbean international locations, operates a CBI programme, which is used to help nationwide financial progress. This may very well be focused in the direction of blue maritime sector improvement

a blue bond is a debt instrument issued by governments, improvement banks or others to lift capital to finance marine- and ocean-based tasks which have constructive environmental, financial and local weather profit. Different SIDS are already exploring the potential of blue bond creation and income as a part of their maritime economic system help mechanisms e.g. Seychelles, Fiji

It’s endorsed that the next prompt Implementation Pathway Actions will profit from coordinated proposals for improvement help:

a formally established Grenada Nationwide Ocean Governance Committee (NOGC) and with sources and remit to develop and implement the Grenada NOP, integrating particular MEP suggestions and actions, to ship built-in marine spatial planning with sustainable blue financial progress

port and delivery Grasp plan with a phased improve and improvement of small, medium and enormous infrastructure to take account of tourism / customer improvement progress and the required help companies. This could embody essential waste and waste-water infrastructure to make sure water high quality is maintained and improved. This have to be backed up with sources to observe and implement requirements e.g. water high quality

replace and implementation of environmental regulation for EIA and integration into planning / improvement course of and a coaching and improvement programme / scheme to make sure it has cross-departmental understanding, uptake and enforcement to ship strategic improvement outcomes in addition to inform particular person planning choices. This has advantages throughout a number of sectors – coastal improvement, tourism, ports / delivery – as EIA, local weather resilient design, constructing codes and enforcement of the identical is required for all developments. Sources, consciousness elevating and coaching is required for particular employees and throughout authorities

replace the Nationwide Bodily Growth Plan, taking account of a ridge to reef (Islands Techniques Administration) method and linked to the NOP, Marine Spatial Plans, Coastal Grasp Plans and improvement wants projections (housing, tourism progress, port masterplan, and many others.). Hyperlink to new EIA laws and implementation

undertake a pure capital valuation to grasp the worth of ecosystem items and companies and underpin / combine into resolution making and planning

9.3 6.3.  Attaining the Ideas of a Blue Economic system

Blue Economic system Ideas
ECROP Coverage outcomes
Concerns for Grenada
Good Governance
Coastal and marine spatial planning and built-in administration of marine and coastal sources is adopted
The imaginative and prescient and coverage outcomes within the 2019 Grenada Nationwide Ocean Coverage (NOP) won’t be achieved until there are formal governance preparations in place, endorsed throughout Authorities, which are resourced and given the facility and affect to implement.
Limits of maritime jurisdiction are established
There’s a want to enhance institutional, coverage and authorized preparations by higher coordinating mechanisms for coverage and plan supply. This requires improved collaboration between sectors, establishments and stakeholders to allow and help the ECROP, NOP and MEP actions
Financial Effectivity
Sustainable socio-economic improvement is achieved
Alignment of the Grenada NOP should take into account and map in opposition to the 2030 Agenda and implementation with the UNSDGs and SAMOA Pathway, with implementation of the actions phased (quick, medium and long run) and constant within the NOP and related Strategic Motion Plans
Resilience within the area is strengthened to mitigate the consequences of local weather associated hazards and environmental change
Dedication can also be to implement regional and worldwide agreements that incorporate a variety of financial devices that assist to mainstream ocean governance into nationwide sustainable improvement commitments (SDG14) and the local weather change agenda
Social Fairness
Sustainable socio-economic improvement is achieved
Capability constructing for human useful resource and continuity to ship the imaginative and prescient and targets within the Grenada NOP, actions, the MEP and the wants of the Authorities and regional and worldwide agreements
Ocean stewardship, consciousness, participation and wellbeing of the residents of OECS Member States is elevated
There’s a want to enhance consciousness – from the very best stage of presidency to native communities – on ocean governance points utilizing a variety of communication instruments and methods
Analysis & Innovation
Resolution-making throughout the area is knowledgeable by one of the best out there proof
The necessity to develop a marine analysis technique framework that features nationwide and regional actions as set out inside the Grenada NOP and progress in the direction of a blue maritime economic system
Ecosystem integrity of the area is maintained and improved
R2R / ISM is important to make sure that actions on land don’t adversely impression the marine surroundings. This have to be integrated into coverage, ICZM and MSPs, with robust hyperlinks to EIA, planning and administration
Previous articleTrump’s commerce secretary Ross plots £700m merger with UK’s Atom Financial institution | Enterprise Information
Next articleEU boosts exports of digital companies